Category Archives: News

log video amplifiers in radar

Log Video Amplifiers: What Are They and What Are Their Applications?

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To deal with signals that have high density pulses with narrow pulse widths and large amplitude variations it is often necessary to utilize Logarithmic Amplifiers. Logarithmic (Log) Amplifiers (Amps) compress a large input dynamic range into smaller more usable dynamic ranges through the use of a logarithmic transfer function. There are three types of logarithmic amplifiers: The Detector Log Video Amplifier (DLVA), the Successive Detection Log Video Amplifiers (SDLVA) and the True Log Amplifier (TLA).


What is a Detector Log Video Amplifier?

DLVA’s are employed to convert RF signals with a relatively large dynamic range to RF signals in a smaller dynamic range.  These video signals are suitable for presentation on active displays or within the dynamic range of Digital-to-Analog converting circuits. DLVA’s can convert 70dB or greater RF dynamic range signals into, as an example, 30dB, maximum video dynamic range. The precise logarithmic transfer function of a DLVA provides relatively easy interpretation of RF signal strengths from these video signal amplitudes.



The DLVAs are most commonly found in applications in which the input RF signal is directly converted into a video signal without the need of down conversion. The result of this direct conversion is a very wide capability which improves the probability of interception of present RF signals. Thus, the use of a detector log video amplifiers in detection applications such as phased array radar receivers, passive direction-finding receivers (radar warning receivers) and channelized receivers, secure airbase perimeter protection to detect unauthorized aircraft intrusion.  Other applications include utilization in laboratory test equipment, specialized test equipment and channelized receivers.


What is an SDLVA?

The Successive Detection Log Video Amplifiers (SDLVA) use circuitry that does not require detection before the logging process. Similar to the DLVA, the SDLVA preserve the amplitude information. They both use multiple compressive stages of RF gain to emulate the exponential transfer function. The output of each stage is coupled into a linear detector. The typical dynamic range of each amplifier/detector stage is approximately 10 dB; therefore, many such stages are required to cover a large dynamic range. The outputs of each detector stage are then summed in a single video amplifier so as to provide a single detected output. SDLVAs can produce a limited RF/IF output from a separate port. This output is an amplified and limited replica of the input signal.


Successive detection log video amplifiers can also provide very fast pulse rise and settling times because the signal gain and compression takes place in RF circuitry.


SDLVAs are often used in radar missile homing systems, radar altimeters and to drive phase detectors or frequency discriminators. It is an analog device that measures RF power at a frequency range from below 1 GHz to tens of GHz. It exhibits faster rise and fall times at a flat frequency when compared with other RF detectors.


The ICs containing SDLVA are provided either in compact SMT ceramic packages or bare die.


What are SDLVA applications?

The design of an SDLVA is suited for applications in Broadband Test and Measurement, Direction Finding Receivers, Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Electronic Warfare (EW), Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) Receivers, and Radar.


Combined together, these devices can produce another device with a different purpose. By using both DLVAs and SDLVAs a broadband log video amplifier can be created.


What is a broadband log video amplifier?

It is a series of log video amplifiers made up of SDLVA and DLVA that offer broadband with a performance of multi-octave frequency from 0.5 GHz to 18 GHz.


Because of the combination of SDLVA and DLVA, it can process a dynamic range of up to 75 dB with a Fast recovery time that ranges from 40 to 150 nsec.


The broadband log video amplifiers on the market feature a 50-ohm hybrid circuit enclosed in rugged metal packages. Combined with SMA connectors, it is designed to be highly reliable and to satisfy MIL-STD-202F environmental conditions. This guarantees an operating performance that ranges from -40°C to +90°C.


What is the application of a broadband log video amplifier?
  • It is used to measure signals that are of high frequency and those that widely vary.
  • It is used when rapid and precise tracking across the entire frequency band is required.
  • In radar and EW systems, the amplifiers are used for finding direction and monitoring power.
  • It is used to test equipment in laboratories and in telecommunications and data communication systems.


Where frequencies are involved, you are likely to find a DLVA or SDLVA somewhere in a device.


AKON Inc, San Jose has developed a new DLVA that operates from 18 to 40 GHz frequency range. This new DLVA has 65 dB dynamic logging range with a log accuracy of +/- 2 dB over 80% of the band. AKON’s DLVA has a fast rise time of 10 nS and a 40 nS fall time. AKON products are designed to withstand the demanding environments of Military, Space and Industrial applications. For further information on Akon products visit their web site.


Peninsula Technical Sales is an expert on DLVA/s, SDLVAs, and integrated systems and components. Please call us for any questions you might have at 650-965-3636 and visit us on our web page.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

dielectric resonator - radar

Dielectric Resonator Oscillators

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Dielectrics are poor conductors of electricity and can be thought of as non-conductive materials or insulators. Dialectrical materials are an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields which can store energy. Most common uses of these materials are in capacitor, power transformer, cables, spark generators, transducers, and in the construction of radio-frequency transmission lines. In general, dielectric materials are solid such as porcelain (ceramic), mica, glass, plastics, and the oxides of various metals although some liquids and gases can serve as good dielectric materials. The characteristics of dielectrics make it essential for use in electronics.  The dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) is an excellent example of an application of dielectric materials.


Oscillators represent the basic energy source for all RF and microwave systems. A typical microwave oscillator consists of an active device (i.e. a diode or a transistor) and either a single passive frequency-determining resonant element or a resonant circuit with several circuit elements. The primary function of DROs is to control the frequency of the radio waves generated. Companion voltage controlled diodes are used in order to tune the DRO to different frequencies.


DROs such as those made by Synergy Microwave in Paterson, N.J. are used widely in electronic warfare, missile, radar and communication systems in both the military and commercial applications. DROs are preferred because they are known to have low phase noise, a stable frequency in an unstable temperature setting, compatibility with other circuit elements, a resistance to being susceptible to harsh surroundings and allowing for compact and simple build reproducibility. A dielectric resonator oscillator can operate in the tens of gigahertz frequency ranges and is usually made of ceramic material formed into a cylindrical shape. The DRO is considered as one of the most important microwave devices.


Dielectric Resonator Vs Resonant Metal Cavities

A resonator is a device which naturally oscillates at some frequency or frequencies at a greater amplitude than at others. The oscillations in a resonator can be either electromagnetic or mechanical. Resonators are used to either generate waves of specific frequencies or to enable the selection of specific frequencies from a signal.


A cavity resonator is one in which waves exist in a hollow space inside the cavity. Microwave cavities consisting of hollow metal boxes and are used in microwave transmitters, receivers and test equipment to control frequency.  They are used in place of the tuned circuits which may have several elements and are used at lower frequencies.


One of the characteristics that distinguish dielectric resonators from resonant metal cavities is the presence or absence of magnetic and electric fields. In a resonant metal cavity there is zero magnetic and electric fields on the dielectric walls outside of the resonator


Tuning Techniques

Dielectric resonator oscillator tuning is done by changing the electromagnetic fields that are supported by the resonator. There are various non-mechanical ways to tune DROs namely with optical elements, varactor diodes, and ferrite elements. Varactor diode tuning seems to be the most efficient and practical way to tune DROs since the other two ways have known difficulties associated with them.


The DRO can possibly be tuned over a 10 percent frequency bandwidth by disturbing the resonator’s magnetic field, which is achieved by changing the air gap between the enclosure and the ceramic cylinder.


Phase Locked Loop DROs

Phase Locked Loop DROs are important when the phase noise factor is a crucial parameter.  Phase noise is an oscillator parameter that has grown in importance with the complexity of modern communications modulation formats. Synergy Microwave Corp in Paterson N.J. has developed a line of compact surface-mount-device (SMD) DROs with extremely low phase noise levels at fundamental-frequency outputs through 20GHz and higher, suitable for use in commercial, industrial, and military applications.


Peninsula Technical Sales has expert technical knowledge of DROs and related product. Visit our web page or call us at 650-969-3636. We are always delighted to answer your questions.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

led lighting

How to Select the Best LED Lighting

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Reducing energy costs is a key consideration in providing electrical power no matter in what environment. LED lighting is one of the main ways to decrease electrical energy costs.


An LED lamp produces light using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). These LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps and significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps utilizing chips which are capable of emitting more than 300 lumens per watt. Here is a comparison of the different lighting lamps and their respective specifications and performance including cost. The LED lighting values are obtained from the range of performance from different LED manufacturers.


Incandescent Halogen CFL LED Light
Watts 60 43 14 8.5-9.5
lumens (mean) 860 750 775 800-815
lumens/watt 14.3 17.4 55.4 85.8-94
Color Temperature kelvin 2700 2920 2700 2700
CRI 100 100 82 80-85
Lifespan (hours) 1,000 1,000 10,000 10-25,000
Lamp lifetime in years @ 6 hours/day 0.46 0.46 4.6 4.6-11.4
Energy cost over 20 years @ 12.5 cents/kWh $315 $226 $74 $45-50
Total cost over 20 years $333 $277 $77 $51.4-58.2
Total cost per 860 lumens $333 $318 $85 $55-67


Selection Criteria to Keep in Mind

With all of the LED lamps and bulbs in the market it is sometimes difficult to know which light is the best for the specific circumstance. The selection of LED lighting should be based on certain specifications which will ensure the most appropriate lighting for the environment.


Wattage Rating

This refers to the amount of energy used when a lighting fixture is switched on. A 3-watt bulb consumes less power than a 10-watt bulb. An LED light can use lower wattage to produce the same intensity of light as an incandescent or fluorescent light source (lumen/watt).

Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) – The Kelvin Scale

Light color, or color temperature, is described using the Kelvin scale (K). LEDs are available in warm colors to match the yellowish light of incandescent bulbs or in cooler colors with whiter or bluer light. A lower kelvin number means the light appears more yellow; higher kelvin numbers mean the light is whiter or bluer. A CCT of  2700-3000K range will match the color of incandescent bulbs, a CCT of  3500-4100K range will emit a whiter light while a 5000-6500K range will provide a bluer white light. It is important to choose the appropriate color for the environment in which the lighting will be used.


Lumens (lm)

This measures the brightness level of the light source. The amount of wattage required to provide the same lumens is referred to as luminous efficiency or lumens per watt.


Color Rendering Index (CRI)

This is the current industry standard that measures the accuracy with which a light source renders the colors of objects it illuminates. 100 is the maximum value of a CRI. In other words, the CRI of a light source quantitatively measures the ability of the light source to reproduce the colors of various objects as compared with a natural sun light source. Most LED lights do not have a CRI above 90. However, the CRI has its challenges since a light that enhances some colors’ saturation, at the expense of fidelity, can be preferred by people.



Measured in lumens per watt (lm/W), this indicates how much light a lamp or a lighting system produces per unit of electrical power consumed.


Using these criteria, one may choose the best LED light for a specific area.


A home office, for example, would require an LED lighting fixture that has a total brightness level of 3000 to 6000 lumens and a color temperature of 3000 to 5000K. This is to ensure that an office space has cool white lights that mimic natural light, resulting in an increased production of serotonin necessary to keep people focused, energized, and alert.


For the bedroom, however, the lighting fixture most appropriate is almost the opposite of those used for the home office. The goal is to create a relaxed, peaceful, and calm atmosphere. The best option is an LED bulb with a total brightness level of 1500 to 4000 lumens and a color temperature of 2700 to 3000K.


In addition to the criteria listed above, you should also look for the stamp of safety standards on the label of LED lighting fixture and retrofitting kits.

  • UL Listed indicates that product samples used for laboratory testing meet UL’s safety requirements.
  • UL Classified indicates that the product has undergone evaluation for specific properties from a qualified laboratory.
  • UL Recognized indicates that a particular component is part of a larger specific system, such as an LED driver that is part of the luminaire housing.
  • ETL Listed indicates that a product has been tested and met the same minimum UL safety requirement.



WorldBond (WB) is the sole USA and Canadian arm for the sale of LED products made by one of the largest LED manufacturing companies in Asia DBA Tynrich which, since its inception in 2001, has established itself as the number 1 professional LED lighting supplier. Using only Cree & Nichia chips and Mean Well drivers, WorldBond LED lighting provides only the highest quality products. All products carry UL, CUS, and CE product certifications and have been exported to over 20 countries worldwide. WB focuses on the commercial and industrial US markets emphasizing external lighting in an incandescent lighting.


Visit our website for more information on LED lighting. You can also reach us at or call at (650)965-3636. We can help answer any questions you might have and aid you in choosing the most appropriate LED lighting.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

automatic voltage regulator cnc machine

Use of Automatic Voltage Regulators in Critical Applications

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Many voltage regulator technologies can correct voltage variations but most are designed for usage in data centers or other light commercial applications where the load and environmental conditions encountered are fairly benign. When computer-grade voltage regulators are used in industrial situations, there are several operational limitations that must be addressed. An industrial-grade automatic voltage regulator is specifically designed for the special challenges and requirements found in manufacturing applications or in situations where the load demands are severe.


What is an industrial power quality application?


While there is not a single definition for an industrial electrical application, it is true that there can be significant differences in the electrical “environment” found in offices, data centers and factories. The electrical characteristics found in industrial applications like machine shops, plastic manufacturers, food processors, commercial printers, etc. can include high load inrush currents, low power factor, significant load swings and significant amounts of harmonic frequencies. Voltage regulation problems account for more than 90% of the power problems seen at most sites.


Regardless of the type, however, an automatic voltage regulator has one critical function – to ensure that the output voltage delivered will be consistent with its load current even when fluctuations happen in the background. This eliminates the damage that fluctuations can cause to appliances, machines, and equipment.


Critical Applications of AVRs   


An automatic voltage regulator is used mostly on equipment possessing electronic parts which are sensitive to power surges or power fluctuations such as:


Medical Equipment:

Medical equipment requires high quality power, and a very stable voltage for accuracy of performance.


X-Ray, CT, MRI and other medical electronics demand a stable reliable voltage delivered from the AC power supply. Otherwise, the working life of medical equipment is shortened and their performance compromised. Since medical machines can be critical to patient safety, they must work under optimal power conditions requiring the use of an AVR to ensure a stable voltage.


3D printing:

No other AVR application is likely to be more critical than in 3D printing of medical devices since these devices must meet very high medical standards and exhibit long-term performance.


3D metal printers require energy sources to be delivered in high precision and extremely accurate control to ensure product quality and safety. Most powders used in 3D printing medical devices are volatile and may cause flash fires and explosion due to sparks in open air or intense flame. An automatic voltage regulator ensures that such accidental sparks are prevented. The AVR promotes a longer life expectancy of the 3D printer and protects it from power problems that will degrade its performance.



AVRs are necessary to insure high performance of highly automated machines or computer numerical control (CNC) machines. CNC machines are machine tools which are automated by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by the use of cams alone.


CNC machines typically fall into one of the two general categories: conventional machining technologies and novel machining technology:


The conventional technology machines include drill_bitdrills, lathe_bitlathes and milling_bitmilling machines. Novel technologies include electrical and/or chemical machining. There are a number of novel technologies that use specialized techniques to cut material. Examples include electron beam machining, electro-chemical machining, electrical discharge machining, photochemical machining, and ultrasonic machining. Most of these technologies are highly specialized and are used in special cases for mass-production involving a particular type of material.  Other cutting mediums use different mediums to cut material. Examples include laser cutting machines, oxy-fuel cutting machines, plasma cutting machines, and water-jet cutting technology.


An example of an application of CNS machines is in the grinding and polishing of optical lenses. With CNC machines, faster and less labor intensive manufacturing methods are now available options to conventional methods. From prototyping to high volume production, automated grinding and polishing technologies are now used for lens fabrication. These new technologies are more efficient and provide more reliable production.


Just like a 3D printer, CNS machines must perform without the power interruption brought on by fluctuations or the entire project will be a failure. The voltage regulator for CNC machines must have the functions of high-frequency interference resistance, anti-surge, and anti-electromagnet. There are many other technical specifications required as well.


Industrial Electrical Application


The electrical power characteristics required in industrial environments are significantly different from those found in offices or in data centers. Plastic manufacturers, food processors and machine shops require high power factor, low inrush currents, low harmonics, and minimum load swings among others.


This is why the automatic voltage regulator used in these environments must be able to prevent and correct the following:

  • Large loads & load swings
  • High load inrush currents
  • High load harmonics
  • Low load power factor

Several types of AVRs meeting these requirements are: ferroresonant constant variable transformers (older technology), tap switching transformer, limited range variable transformers, variable transformer buck-boost v.


Staco Energy’s AVR technology is based on a series regulation transformer controlled by variable transformers (VTs). It uses buckboost technology and offers tight output regulation (+/- 1%), robust design and easy customization accommodating against all but the most extreme voltage swings. Were additional non-voltage issues to occur, Staco Energy offers a series of options that address such issues as high voltage transients, high harmonic content and site load imbalance. This integrated and targeted approach provides sites specific power correction in a one-box solution.


Applications for Staco Voltage Regulation


Aside from those listed above include:


Broadcast: regulation for broadcast transmitter sites and studios.


Commercial: high-rise building whole floor regulation or power conditioning, input voltage regulation for elevator control, large a/c chillers lighting, and other sensitive non-critical systems.


Marine: dockside or shipboard voltage regulation and power conditioning.


Mobile: commercial broadcast and military mobile communication trucks, trailers, and shelters.



Please visit our web site or contact us at Peninsula Technical Sales to discuss your particular requirements or any further questions you might have. You can reach us at or by calling 650-965-3636.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

5G Wireless Technology

Let’s Talk 5G: More about Frequencies and Filters

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5G wireless technology is not scheduled to be available until 2020 but speculations about its frequency and filters are running rampant. Some of the most popular include:


Use of 5G RAN

The radio access network (RAN) for this next generation wireless technology is expected to be a combination of frequencies, nodes, and technologies which promise a boost in speed and reduction in latency. The downside is that it presents larger challenges for deployment.


Most consider that a frequency higher than what 4G offers will probably far outweigh its deployment difficulty.


Use of High-Frequency Spectrum

Many experts believe that 5G wireless technology will have a frequency spectrum of greater than 6 GHz particularly since almost all available spectrum below 6 GHz have already been allocated forcing carriers to move to a higher frequency spectrum in order to secure bandwidth.


The 4G networks’ spectrum is defined between 700 MHz to 3 GHz, by definition then 5G has to be higher. Companies are actively involved in doing research at different frequencies, such as 15 GHz, 28 GHz, and 70 GHz.


In the Final Report to The Office of Communications, (Ofcom, a UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom) the Quotient Associates presented the 5G Candidate Band Study that looked into the frequency range considerations for 5G wireless technology. The study considered 6-30 GHz, 30-100 GHz, and above 100GHz as frequency ranges for the study.


The numbers were chosen as they represent a segregation of spectrum that is useful for the research.


6-30 GHz

This frequency is chosen because it is closest to existing cellular frequencies used in today’s technology and architecture. It means little additional development for existing cellular technologies will be required to employ the next generation wireless technology.


30-100 GHz

Through the use of silicon technology, this whole range of frequencies will be accessible in the next 5 years. The 30-100 GHz range contains a 60 GHz oxygen absorption peak. Wi-Fi CERTIFIED (WiGig) expands the Wi-Fi experience for virtual reality, multimedia streaming, gaming, wireless docking, and enterprise applications requiring high speed, data-intensive connections. WiGig® allows Wi-Fi devices to access the uncongested 60 GHz frequency band with wide channels to transmit data efficiently at multi-gigabit per second speeds. WiGig systems were developed using low-cost silicon system-on-a-chip (SoC) integration.


Above 100GHz

In some countries, this band contains a number of oxygen and water absorption peaks. Combined with a narrow ISM band, the first oxygen peak is reached at 120 GHz. Although there are challenges in the device and packaging technologies used in this range, it remains of interest for future development because of how it enables huge bandwidths to be achieved.


Propagation for all these ranges, however, will be line-of-sight. This means bandwidths that are available above 6 GHz will have to be short range and point to point.


Filter Requirements of 5G Technology

Unlike the power amplifier, 5G RF filtering will require a single filter for each individual frequency band. This also means varied requirements for filtering.


Multiplexing will Become Complex

Multiplexing is the transmission of multiple analog or digital signals combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share a scarce resource. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be carried using one wire. The need to multiplex will expand as carrier aggregation increases resulting in more complex designs.


Integration Will Increase

The entire RF chain will need to be optimized in order for the uplink’s Power Amplification (PA) efficiency and for the downlink’s receiver sensitivity to be maximized.


Number of Filters will Increase

Spectrum and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output proliferation will grow which, in turn, will require more filters. This calls for the cost and sizes of the filters to be decreased.


With increasing filter requirements, specifications will become more demanding as well.


Akon Inc. in San Jose, California is well positioned to supply filters, switch filter assemblies and frequency converters for the now underway 5-G network topology, while Synergy Microwave in Patterson, New Jersey supplies frequency sources and frequency synthesizers for the 5-G network as well.



For further information on 5G wireless technology and its frequency and filters please contact Peninsula Technical Sales by either visiting or calling us at (650) 935-3636.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

5G Network Antenna

Why 5G: Setting the New Standard for Frequencies of Operation for Telecommunication

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Amazing as it may seem after 2020 it will be necessary to support 1,000 times higher mobile data volume per area along with supporting new wireless broadband communication services coming from a plethora of different market segments. These requirements show the need for a new mobile generation, which is the impetus for developing the platform for Fifth Generation (5G) technologies.


Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society (METIS) is the research project partly funded by the European Commission under the Framework Programme 7 (FP7).  METIS’ goal is to develop a foundation for wireless communication systems after 2020 providing the technical enablers essential to overcome the very challenging requirements foreseen by both the scope of the project and its time frame.


The 5G system as seen by METIS must:
  • Surpass significantly today’s system in its efficiency of energy, cost, and resource utilization.
  • Support a significant diversity of requirements (e.g., payload size, availability, mobility, and Quality-of-Service (QoS)), etc
  • Augment scalability in terms of number of connected devices, densely deployed access points, spectrum usage, energy, and cost.


METIS has established the following technical goals derived from the above objectives:
  • 1,000 times higher mobile data volume per area,
  • 10 to 100 times higher typical user data rate,
  • 10 to 100 times higher number of connected devices,
  • 10 times longer battery life for low-power devices,
  • 5 times reduced end-to-end (E2E) latency, reaching a target of 5 ms for road safety applications.


According to the Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA) to qualify for a 5G connection one should meet most of these eight criteria:
  1. One to 10Gbps connections to end points in the field
  2. One millisecond end-to-end round trip delay
  3. 1000x bandwidth per unit area
  4. 10 to 100x number of connected devices
  5. (Perception of) 99.999 percent availability
  6. (Perception of) 100 percent coverage
  7. 90 percent reduction in network energy usage
  8. Up to ten-year battery life for low power, machine-type devices


The buzz word 5G often relays a misconception that 5G simply means super-fast data speeds. That’s because the early testing so far has emphasized how much faster 5G will be than today’s existing technology.


AT&T for example has announced that they believe 5G speeds will be measured in gigabits per second instead of megabits per second. This means an exponential boost of up to 100 times faster than the current speeds of 4G LTE. So what takes minutes to download now will only take a few seconds once the next generation of wireless technology is rolled out.


To comprehend how much faster a  gigabit connection is than any data speeds experienced presently we turn to Google’s claims that even at a rate of one gigabit per second, one can download a full HD movie in less than two minutes.


Aside from speed what are the other very significant advantages and potential for 5G?


Massive machine communications (MMC) will provide up- and down-scalable connectivity solutions for tens of billions of network-enabled devices. One of the biggest improvements one will see in 5G is the flexibility to support many different types of devices some already developed, others to be developed. In addition to routine connecting to phones and tablets, 5G will need to support an expanding market of wearable devices like fitness trackers and smart watches, smart-home gadgets and all sorts of sensors. It is estimated by some that in the future “every person will have 10 to 100 machines they need to work for them.”  As a sub set of MMC is the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT)

  1. The IOT represents the world of  devices, vehicles, home appliances, that is, any items embedded with electronic sensors which enable these objects to connect and exchange information.
  2. The IOT allows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure.   This includes medical sensing devices like heart monitoring implants or  “smart” assignations as smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities or transponders on to track animals or cameras streaming live feeds of wild animals in coastal waters.
  3. Self Driving Automobiles otherwise known as Vehicle to Vehicle, Device and Infrastructure (V2X) and driver assistance services demand communication between the vehicles and their environment  in order to improve road safety and traffic efficiency in the future. Such V2X services require reliable communication links that enable the transmission of data packets with guaranteed maximum latencies even at high vehicle speeds. Currently, self-driving cars rely on cellular towers to determine their location and where other cars are to avoid accidents. But because of latency problems, “driving” self-driving cars is a painfully slow process. The risk of accidents is also high because a self-driving vehicle is already traveling 4 feet at about 60 miles per hour before a message is received. The car could have collided with other vehicles by then.


Ultra-reliable Communications

Ultra-reliable communications (URC) will enable high degrees of availability. End-to-end performance refers to how reliably and consistently the cellular radio in a smartphone can maintain connections with the servers from which it retrieves information. URC will provide scalable and cost-efficient solutions for networks supporting services with extreme requirements on availability and reliability in employing device-to-device (D2D) solutions for public safety and proximity-based services applications.


5G is still in development, but many companies have started creating 5G products and field testing them such as Nokia, Qualcomm, Samsung, Ericsson and BT, with growing numbers of companies forming 5G partnerships and pledging money to continue to research into 5G and its applications. Contact Pentech today for more information!


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

uninterruptible power supply

The Need For A Harsh Environment Uninterruptable Power Supply

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Uninterruptible Power Supply systems are more and more often being deployed in rugged and demanding environments that greatly expand the standard UPS operational limits. Powering applications in oil and gas exploration, mining, remote communications facilities, toll roads, water treatment plants, etc., require a higher level of power protection.  UPS models not specifically designed to be used in extreme temperature (-40⁰F to 149⁰F) environments and installed in locations where the upper temperature range is the norm have a markedly decreased battery life of 9 months or less.  When they are installed in an environment of increased condensation, salt air or dust pollution, the circuit board assemblies used in the standard UPS are not protected against the deleterious effects of condensation, conductive dust or the corrosive effects of salt air.


Harsh Environment UPS

Only a few uninterruptible power supply manufacturers offer rugged UPS models and turn-key UPS NEMA-rated enclosure systems designed for these environments.  A UPS designed for industrial use is far more robust, having typical operational temperatures of -22⁰F to 131⁰F and some can even endure up to 149⁰F. This harsh environment new class of UPSs has to support being installed in locations were dew point and condensation are an issue. Some manufacturers offer optional conformal coating of the UPS’s internal circuit boards and components providing a protective barrier from the effects of condensation and conductive dust


Heat damages computer-grade UPS batteries. These UPS utilize alternate high- temperature batteries. Some have a four year rated service life at 122⁰F. Other types are available having an operational temperature rating of up to 176⁰F. These batteries will go where others can’t.


Installing an uninterruptible power supply in a harsh environment requires an accurate assessment of all of the environmental conditions and selecting only a UPS that has been specifically designed for that environment.


Staco Energy Products

Staco Energy Products Company offers a rugged environment product line of UPS: The First Line XD 20-40 kVA.  The XD UPS is able to endure up to 50°C operational temperature for units without internal batteries; they are coated with conformal and anti-fungal coating, and possess double electronic and galvanic protection of the load from the battery. The warranty covers an unprecedented 5 years.


Please call Peninsula Technical Sales at 650-965-3636 for further information and we will be able to assist you in finding the right UPS for your needs. Visit us at to view all of the power conditioning equipment Staco Energy offers.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

power dividers antennas

Couplers and Power Dividers

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Directional couplers are devices used primarily in the field of radio technology. They couple a defined amount of the electromagnetic power in a transmission line to an additional port(s) enabling the incoming signal to be used in other circuits. An essential feature of directional couplers is that they only transmit power received from the input in one direction. Conversely, power entering any of the output port(s) is coupled to an isolated port, but not to the original input port. A directional coupler designed to split power equally, with equal amplitude and the same phase between the two ports is called a two way power divider. Power dividers when used in reverse, are known as power combiners. The power dividing concept can also be extended to divide power equally into 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 16 or more outputs.


Directional couplers are most frequently constructed from two coupled transmission lines set close enough together such that energy passing through one is coupled to the other. This technique is favored at the microwave frequencies, where transmission line designs are commonly used to implement many circuit elements. However, lumped component devices are also possible at lower frequencies, such as in audio frequencies encountered in telephony.


Also at microwave frequencies, particularly in the higher frequency bands, waveguide designs can be used. Many of these waveguide couplers correspond to one of the conducting transmission line designs, but there are also types that are unique to waveguide.


Directional couplers and power dividers have many applications. These include providing a signal sample for measurement or monitoring purposes, feedback purposes, combining feeds to and from antennas, antenna beam forming, providing taps for cable distributed systems such as cable TV, and separating transmitted and received signals on telephone lines.


Getting Acquainted with Some of the Power Dividers from Synergy Microwave Corporation

Synergy Microwave Corporation (SMC) designs and manufactures a wide range of high-performance models of power divider (splitter / combiner) with a frequency range of up to 16.5 GHz and has been doing so for more than 35 years. Their products incorporate several features, including moderate and high power handling capability suitable for power combining and signal splitting. Many products are available which cover wide frequency bandwidths.


Peninsula technical Sales is happy to provide you with further information and technical assistance. Visit our website or call us at 650-965-3636.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

led lighting

Why Use LED Lighting in Parking Lots and Garages

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When it comes to illumination, parking lots and garages present a challenging environment. This is because the illumination system must accommodate both pedestrian and vehicular traffic, address public safety concerns, endure harsh operating environments, and consider lighting quality issues.


The wrong lighting system, for example, can cause excessive shadows in parking areas, which is a safety hazard to pedestrians and motorists trying to navigate barriers and obstacles.


In the past, High-Intensity Discharge (HID) light fixtures have been used to ensure a bright and well-lit pavement, as it is one of the few fixtures that can emit light on a wide scope.


The downside is that it costs a lot of money because of its huge energy consumption. You can just imagine the electric bill you would have to face each month for the HID lights alone. Since there will be more than one fixture within the parking lot and garage, one can expect a staggering electric bill.


Some businesses opt to use low fixture mounting heights to achieve the desired illumination at a lower cost. However, this will require more fixtures to be used, resulting in glare problems.


Such concerns, however, have been resolved with the use of LED lights, a fixture with better features and more benefits.


Higher Color Rendering Index

One of the best companies in the market for LED lighting is Worldbond. Their LED lighting output can rival that of other LED and HID counterparts. Worldbond LED’s, in general, offer a superior choice in parking lots and garage lighting because their LED’s have a higher color rendering index.


Because of LED’s higher color rendering index, you get a truer white light than an HID lighting fixture is capable of. It provides more accurate colors, making it a perfect lighting option for true color as in car dealerships. It has brighter illumination without the high energy consumption.


Longer-Lasting Fixtures

The LEDs’ wonderful white light will not change or fade over time. Rated to last much longer than traditional HID lighting fixtures, you don’t need to change lamps frequently, reducing cost in manpower and labor. In fact, it has a life expectancy of 8 to 20 years


Lower Energy Costs

In addition to having a brighter illumination, LED lights have lower energy consumption saving more than 50% in consumed energy. As an example, a traditional HID system with a 150w Pulse Start Metal Halide (PSMH) lamp, uses 185 watts, but its equivalent LED system only uses 70 watts. Given that the HID only has life hours of 15,000 while the LED has 60,000 hours, an overall savings of 63% can be realized.


Lower Maintenance Cost

Because of its higher life expectancy rate, you will be able to save on maintenance costs. If you don’t need to replace bulbs more often, you won’t have to hire people to do the work. There is no need to take care of LED bulbs either. You just need to make sure they are protected against harsh elements to prevent premature damage.


Better Security

With an illumination equivalent to or greater than HID lamps, expect heightened visibility in and around parking lots and garages. No need to worry about excessive shadows or being unable to see all the parked cars clearly.


Without a doubt, using LED lights in parking lots and garages will work to your advantage. As a distributor for WorldBond, we are experts in LED lighting, contact us today for more information.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.


Understanding Harmonic Filters and Their Role in Power Factor Correction

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In an electrical system, the term power factor is the ratio of usable real power to non-usable apparent power sometimes called reactive power. It not only controls energy consumption but also how that energy consumption is billed.


The lower the power factor the higher the required necessary current draw, which will require a more robust infrastructure and the use of appropriately heavier gauge wires to minimize the dissipation of power. This means that on-premises utility usage will be more costly, and facilities operating with low power factors will be charged at a higher usage utility rate than facilities with high power factors.


Fortunately, there are ways to correct sub-par operating power factors and greatly reduce or eliminate frequency harmonics to ensure higher cost efficiency of an operating electrical system.


There are two scenarios causing power factor displacements – operating power factor and harmonic power factor. The first displacement is caused by any inductance in an electrical load, (such as a motor) causing the delivered current to be out of phase with the supply voltage, while the latter displacement results from any non-linear switching of the utilized supply voltages, such is the case when using power semiconductor devices and rectifier circuits.


For an electrical system to function properly, any harmonic resonance present and/or harmonic distortion must be eliminated


When there is a large supply of individual currents from a number of harmonic current sources, the system could resonate. This is especially true if one of the harmonic frequencies of the current sources coincides with the resonant frequency created from the combination of the supply transformer’s and the capacitor circuitry combination which is being used for power factor correction.


The large flow of current going to a major supply transformer (such as in a data center) can lead to a large harmonic voltage distortion. This event increases the risk of increased heating which will cause the loss of some of the transformer’s power output, possible malfunction of connected equipment, possible premature failure of other connected power factor correction capacitors and motors, and interference in some communication systems.


Harmonic Filters – A Practical Solution

To reduce or eliminate harmonic resonance and distortion, a true harmonic filter needs to be used at strategic operating circuit points.


What is a harmonic filter?

As previously mentioned, harmonic filters are used to eliminate harmonic distortion caused by excess currents in and out of appliances. It can prevent large quantities of harmonics from causing damage to equipment, downtime of operation, and preventing an increase in operating costs.


What is a harmonic filter made of?

The interior of a harmonic filter is made up of an array of resistors, inductors, and capacitors that are capable of deflecting unwanted harmonic currents, sending them to ground. Some of these filters are designed to deflect harmonics of a specific frequency or frequencies.


What are the various types of harmonic filters?

Passive Harmonic Filters – These filters are typically used in industrial installations with loads representing more than 500kVA. These filters require power-factor correction during installation.


Active Harmonic Filters – Also known as active harmonic conditioners, these filters are often used in commercial installations with loads less than 500kVA. They help to reduce current distortion that could lead to equipment heating and circuit overloads.


Hybrid Filters – A system that combines passive and active filters for industrial installations with loads more than 500kVA. It has the advantage of the previous two types of filters and covers different power and performance levels.


Each of these options has their place in the market. It is important that a user identifies the amount of harmonic distortion that needs to be eliminated before a filter is chosen. Active filters, for example, are ideal when there is more than one type of load present, such as UPS, VFD, and DC drives


These various types of Harmonic Filters are readily available from Staco Energy. Staco Energy is an 80 year old midwestern company engaged in designing and supplying harmonic filters, voltage regulators, and UPS power  conditioning equipment. Please contact Peninsula Technical Sales for further information regarding what type of harmonic filters might be appropriate for you.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.