Category Archives: News

n+1 ups

When to Use Redundant N+1 UPS

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Any data-intensive organization needs UPS systems to always be operational.  In the past – or in cases where legacy systems are still in place – everything grinds to a halt because of a component failure. However, implementing N+1 redundancy ensures that nothing will be disrupted. Work can go on and goals can be met.



Also referred to as a parallel redundancy, N+1 is used as a safety measure that guarantees that an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) remains available at all times. The N refers to the number of UPS modules needed, while the 1 specifies one more.


An organization that deals with large amounts of data on a daily basis requires that the data be available at all times. Usually, a UPS system is installed to ensure that operations continue in the event of a power outage or some other kind of power failure. Installing only one large UPS may result in all systems being disrupted in the event of a UPS failure. By using an N+1 scheme which configures the connection of several UPS modules the load is shared so in the event of a single unit failure, the system can still provide the needed power supply.


N+1 UPS Application

Given what it’s supposed to provide, it’s clear that an N+1 scheme is best suited for facilities that need systems to be running at all times. For example, a data center greatly benefits from an N+1 UPS setup to ensure that all systems remain functioning despite failure at a single point.


Other than data centers, any organization that requires reliability will stand to benefit from implementing an N+1 UPS scheme. Redundant systems like the N+1 are also commonly implemented in the aerospace industry where such a setup helps ensure the safety and integrity of spacecraft.


N+1 UPS Design Considerations

There’s more to consider than just simply getting N UPS systems and an additional one for a facility. For example, a data center using a legacy system can implement an N+1 scheme with the help of static transfer switches (STS), which control the power source responsible for providing power to servers and IT equipment. An STS can be put between UPS’s so that a switch occurs when one fails.


The kind of equipment used should also be assessed as to its system efficiency. For example, a blade server requiring high power density means that an equally powerful UPS is needed for the said server. One has to remember in implementing an N+1 redundancy system that the UPS is only 50% efficient.



Cost and electricity consumption have to be considered when designing an N+1 UPS scheme so features such as advanced battery management might be included in the system.


Facilities and organizations that require systems to be up at all times, even in the occasion of failure, benefits from an N+1 UPS setup. That said, certain considerations need to be made to ensure that the design results in system efficiency.


Staco Energy provides all types of UPS systems and can configure N+1 UPS for any specific requirement.  Need further information please contact Peninsula Technical Sales ( at 650-965-3636 or e-mail us at



Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

power supplies for traffic

Power Supplies Used in Traffic Signal Control and Lighting

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Traffic Signal power supplies supply power to traffic signal cabinets while adhering to local utility company requirements. The traffic signal power supply is an electrical device in the control cabinet that converts AC to correct DC voltages for various devices in the traffic signal cabinet. The nominal voltage of the power supply is 24VDC. If the power supply cable travels underground, it is run in a separate RGS conduit from the detector, signal, and communications cables. If it travels overhead, it is usually run on a separate messenger cable above all other signal cables.


Where street lights are installed on traffic signal poles, they possess their own circuit breaker on the service pole and the power conductor routing does not pass through the controller cabinet.


When utility power is not available, a UPS or BBS can provide emergency power to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source (i.e. batteries). Several studies recommend that traffic control signals that are adjacent to highway-rail grade crossings and that are coordinated with the flashing-light signals or that include railroad preemption features be provided with a back-up power supply. The use of a UPS is also recommended on high-volume intersections where maintenance of traffic signal operations during power outages is critical to traffic flow.


Traffic signal control and lighting should be reliable and be free from delays, dangers, and most of all, power outages. Therefore, it is important that traffic management must ensure that traffic signals shouldn’t go dark at any given time.


One of the effective options used by traffic management teams is the use of LED or light-emitting diode lamps to be able to consume less power during operations. This will also make it easier to provide backup power, such as the use of uninterruptible power supplies (UPS).


Basically, this technology would employ a separate source of power and keep the supply of electric power flowing without any interruptions. This is because the mechanism will keep running even when utility power goes off for a short period of time. Thus, it is important to keep the equipment connected to the power supply at all times.


Therefore, it is best to have backup power supplies in place before any interruptions may occur. From a priority standpoint, the materials to be used and the installation processes need to be the main priority. Every state has basic requirements.


In the state of California, there are specifications that manufacturers need to follow to be granted permission to install a new technology battery backup system in a given area. One has to abide by the transportation electrical equipment specifications or TEES in this location. These are specifications for green technology battery backup system.


Minimum Requirements


When installing an emergency battery backup power system for LED traffic signal modules, the following requirements have been established by the State California.


Battery Backup System Configuration and Requirements 
  • Charger/inverter
  • Power transfer relay
  • Separate manually-operated non-electronic bypass switch
  • Necessary hardware and interconnecting wire
  • Cal Trans approved
  • High efficiency
  • TEES 2009 compliant
  • Can be used in existing and new configurations
  • Run-Time: the GT-BBS shall provide a minimum two (2) hours of full run-time operation or 8 hours of flash operation for an “LED-only” intersection
  • The BBS, for safety and efficiency shall operate with a nominal 48 VDC buss. A DC level higher than 56 VDC shall be considered unsafe and not acceptable.
  • The operating temperature for the inverter/charger, power transfer relay and manual bypass switch shall be –37 °C to +74 °C.
  • The maximum transfer time allowed, from disruption of normal utility line voltage to providing the stabilized inverter line voltage from the battery bank, shall be 10 milliseconds.


System Reliability


The importance of Green Technology Battery Backup System or GT-BBS is that it must have reliable emergency power for the traffic signal system to fend off the possibility of power interruption and power failure. At the same time, the GT-BBS must provide full runtime operation for a LED only intersection. It could also use a flashing mode operation for intersections using red LEDs.



The GT-BBS must be compatible with the CalTrans 332LX and 342X cabinets, NEMA, Model 2070 and 170 controllers, and some cabinet components intended for full-time operations.


Transportation Management Systems (TMS)

 The TMS would include the following systems requirements to meet the State of California requirements:

  • Advanced operational hardware
  • Communications systems and infrastructures
  • Software


These are intended for:

  • Integrated Advanced Transportation Management Systems and Information Systems
  • Electronic Toll Collection Systems


Furthermore, the Office of Technology has partnered with CalTrans Districts, local agencies, and others to provide support and leadership towards the development, deployment, maintenance, operation, and standardization of TMS for California State.


Jasper Electronics specializes in traffic control power supplies:  the “TC” Series Power Supplies and Racks. All models provide a single 24VDC, 120W output from a highly reliable, high efficiency switching technology power supply. The internal circuitry can be adapted for use in any chassis configuration specified by the various transportation authorities across the US. Jasper Electronic Traffic Light control power supplies are Caltrans approved and comply with TEES 2009, for use in type 332, 334, and 336 style cabinets.  For further information please call Peninsula Technical Sales ( at 650-965-3636 or e-mail us at



Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

vector modulation

Synergy Microwave offers Vector Modulation Products for High Data Rate Communication Systems

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The high demand for portable wireless equipment, such as digital cordless phones, mobile phones, and wireless local area network (WLAN) systems, put a premium on the available radio spectrum. Furthermore, equipment used for mobile communication services are required to be small in size, with low power consumption, fading resilience, and light in weight.


These combined demands call for specific digital modulation techniques in order to satisfy the size and spectrum requirements. The advancements in higher-speed IC processes and digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters have helped to meet these demands.


Vector Modulation in Communication Systems

In analyzing communication systems, there are always trade-offs for every design developed. When simple hardware is used in transmitters and receivers to communicate information, increased bandwidth is required and the number of users is reduced. However, if a spectrally efficient transmission must be achieved, then more complex transmitters and receivers must be used.


Due to the many modulation schemes developed to date, designers now have a wide range of options to develop spectrally efficient communication systems to achieve the best system performance without the cost of increased system complexity.


Today’s digital modulation can be developed to provide increased information capacity, higher data security, and better overall quality communications. They can be made highly compatible with digital data services as well.


Vector Modulation in digital communications is often expressed in terms of in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q). But others are divided into linear and nonlinear schemes that are either with memory or memory-less.


There are several classifications of digital modulation methods, the most common of which are QPSK (quadrature phase-shift keying)/OQPSK (orthogonal quadrature phase-shift keying), 8PSK (8-level phase-shift keying), MSK (Minimum shift keying), and GMSK (Gaussian minimum-shift keying). Which method is used will depend on the modulation parameter.


Digital modulation schemes employed in mobile communications share common characteristics—narrowband performance, low required power for information transmission, minimal deterioration of transmission characteristics due to Rayleigh fading, and simplified modem circuits.


Bandwidth is one of the most important characteristics of a vector modulation scheme since it is used to transmit a given set of data. Its efficiency is measured by how the allocated bandwidth is used to transmit data.


Different vector modulations have different theoretical bandwidth efficiency limits.

  • QPSK/OQPSK @ 2 bits/second/Hz
  • 8PSK @ 3 bits/second/Hz
  • MSK @ 1 bit/second/Hz


Communication systems also use digital filters to smooth out fast transitions and enhance the spectral efficiency of modulated signals. They also reject much of the noise and interference at the receiving end, improving sensitivity in the process. Some of the common pre-modulation filters used are Gaussian filters, raised cosine, and square-root raised cosine.


Test system setup is also carried out to analyze the performance of RF circuits that are designed for digital communication systems. To generate the baseband signal that represents the input data, either an arbitrary waveform generator or a software package is used.


Complex vector modulation schemes will continue to grow to meet advancements in the wireless systems. Comprehensive understanding of vector modulation schemes will enable RF designers to better develop components and systems and make wireless communication crystal clear.


Synergy Microwave has Vector Modulation modules available to handle power to 250mW and higher power up to several watts.  They also offer narrow or ultra-wide bandwidths, higher reliability and flexibility with customization and the capability to develop these products for LF(3MHz) through X-B (12GHz). For further information on Synergy Microwave’s Vector Modulation Products, contact Peninsula Technical Sales ( at 650-965-3636 or e-mail us at “”


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

power supplies

Jasper Electronics Is Providing Medical Devices Power Supplies Which Meet Stringent Specifications

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Power supplies for medical devices are available in many styles, including enclosed, open frame, table top, or wall mounted. Whichever one you choose, safety must be a priority.


Patients in hospitals are often in a weakened state and small leakage currents can worsen their condition even further. Small leakage currents are defined as the unintended electric currents that may pass through the human body. To a healthy person, the leakage has little to no effect but to ill patients there is much more cause for concern.


For this reason, medical devices that have direct physical contact with patients must have limited leakage current and must be regulated to be at the lowest prescribed levels.


Because medical devices are designed to the highest standards, medical power supplies must meet the same standards to protect patients and operators from electrocution.


Medical standards for electrical equipment and power supplies

Power supplies used in medical devices must meet IEC 60601 “Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Safety” for global compliance. They must also meet regional and national variations, depending on where the medical devices are used. Europe, for example, follows the European EN 60601-1, the United States follows the U.S. ANSI/AAMI ES 60601-1, and Japan follows the Japanese JIS T 0601-1 standards.


These different standards make designing power supplies for medical applications uniquely challenging for many engineers.


The latest changes in Medical Power Supply Safety Standards is specified in the IEC60601-1 third edition. Some of the new requirements added are the isolation between the AC input to the power supply, the DC output, and the internal high voltage stages.


To assure isolation a double layer of insulation or reinforced insulation is designed to prevent electric shock to patients. Furthermore, testing requires medical supplies to be subjected to a much higher voltage than it normally faces.


Classification of applied parts

There are three types of applied parts used in Medical power supplies—body type (B), body floating type (BF), and cardiac floating type (CF). The regulating standards required for the several attributes, such as leakage current, creepage requirement, and isolation voltage, are determined by the applied parts.


Type B refers to devices used within the patient vicinity or 6 feet around the patient’s chair or bed. These devices, such as hospital beds, operating room lights, and x-ray machines, are grounded and do not touch the patient electronically.

  • Creepage Requirement: 2.5 mm
  • Isolation Requirement: 1500 Vac
  • Insulation Requirement: Double


Type BF refers to devices that deliver electrical energy signals to or from the patient, such as electrical thermometers, endoscopes, and electrosurgical devices.

  • Creepage Requirement: 5 mm
  • Isolation Requirement: 3000 Vac
  • Insulation Requirement: Basic


Types CF refers to devices that operate within the patient vicinity, like a BF type, but supply power to devices connected to the heart. These include a defibrillator, intracardiac ECG electrodes, and an external pacemaker. For this reason, such devices must have a higher degree of protection against electrical shock.

  • Creepage Requirement: 8 mm
  • Isolation Requirement: 4000 Vac
  • Insulation Requirement: Double


The leakage current for all medical devices must not exceed 500uA or 300uA for UL approved devices.


Means of production (MOP) classification

To prevent patients and operators from electrocution, all medical power supplies must include at least one MOP, such as protective insulation, safety insulation, and protective earth and creepage insulation.


MOP differs in requirements based on whether it is for Means of Patient Protection (MOPP) and Means of Operator Protection (MOOP).


Jasper Electronics has been working closely with medical device manufacturers over the last 20 years to provide reliable & cost-effective solutions. JE operates under ISO 9001 to ensure that process controls are always in place. For Further information about Jasper Electronics Power Supplies for the Medical market as well as other power supplies contact Peninsula Technical Sales at 650-965-3636 or write us at


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

uninterruptible power systems - medical devices

The Necessity for Power Backup for Medical Devices

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Clinics and hospitals require uninterruptible power systems and reliable tools to ensure that power is continuously provided without interruption. Even in the case of total electrical power outages from whatever cause, electrical power is essential, and with a reliable UPS, power will still be distributed throughout the facility without compromise.


Despite major advancement in technology, there continues to be power sags and surges both of which can damage valuable computer equipment and medical imaging devices and may be responsible for halting medical procedures. This is particularly true in medical facilities where there has been a growing use of electronics and an increasing demand on power supplies to run medical equipment. To heighten the problem, oftentimes medical settings are operating out of buildings that have an older electrical infrastructure. This results in more frequent power failures, spikes, voltage drops and brown outs which can damage the costly vital medical equipment and impact patient safety.


For this reason, it is essential to plan and deploy a robust solution for potential power interruptions. Aside from installing generators, the installation of uninterruptible power systems in the facility plays a major role in any well-designed power protection architecture assuring that medical data from medical records to lab results and critical care equipment are protected from all types of power issues.


Importance of Power Protection


Mission critical medical equipment often requires clean, conditioned power protection from power surges and from uninterrupted power during power outages. Power outages can be troublesome even if they last only seconds or fraction of seconds. In fact, losing power for a matter of split seconds can trigger many untoward events including causing medical equipment to be unavailable for minutes to hours.


But it is not just power outages that cause problems. Having reliable power quality along with voltage regulation and harmonic mitigation are essential to sustaining both the reliability of the equipment and the life of the equipment.


Although generators are effective in sustaining proper systems operation in the event of long utility outages, a UPS can bridge the power time gap between the actual loss of electrical power and the generator assuming the power supply role. One may consider the UPS to be a device that provides backup power when there is failure in the utility power allowing the system to shut down gracefully while avoiding any data loss and very importantly sustaining electrical power long enough to keep the needed loads operational until the generator is back online.


Imaging Equipment and More


Diagnostic imaging systems such as Ultrasound, MRI, CT or X-ray, are now used both within and outside of hospitals. The imaging equipment exerts substantial power demands and has unique power requirements. Although imaging equipment when idle uses very little power when scanning, the power demands spike up quickly. Any abrupt power fluctuations and outages from the utility company, combined varying power demands can cause damage to the machine’s electronics. Uninterruptible power systems help prevent these undesirable outcomes, equipment breakdowns and losses.


However, imaging equipment is not the only area in which reliable power protection and management is necessary in the healthcare industry. Other areas in which power protection is as vital include clinical lab equipment that produces and stores medical research and processes such as biopsies; medical gas monitoring systems; medical and vaccine refrigerators and freezers; life support equipment and monitors; surgical equipment and operating rooms; home healthcare equipment such as CPAP units and O2 concentrators.


STACO ENERGY has a long history of providing uninterruptible power systems in the medical field both with seismic and OSHPD certification. STACO ENERGY PRODUCTS offers power conditioning equipment specifically to protect all types of imaging equipment as X-Ray, CAT scan and MRI from electrical damage. Available both in single and three phase interfaces, these UPS’s provide complete protection at a low cost and with a small foot print.


Have any questions regarding any power conditioning equipment? Call us at Peninsula Technical Sales 650-965-3636 or e-mail us at Please visit our web site at



Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

Industrial LED High Bay Lighting

LED High Bay Lighting

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High bay lighting is an industry standard term for the more heavy duty types of light fitting. These high bays are specifically designed to be used in very high areas from 20 to 40 ft. and to provide evenly distributed, uniform lighting for open areas. These high bay lights are used in spaces like manufacturing, industrial facilities, gymnasiums, warehouses, large department stores, factories, school and municipal facilities like community centers or recreation centers and commercial applications like department stores.


Because these facilities are typically vast and cover a great deal of vertical as well as horizontal space, they require powerful lighting to provide the appropriate foot-candle levels to adequately illuminate. A particular consideration for use with a high bay light is if it can illuminate vertical surfaces as well as have it illuminate the floor, or working plane. Lighting of verticals is particularly important when dealing with warehouses where items are required to be picked from a shelf.


Typically, high bay lighting fixtures hang from the ceiling via hooks, chains or pendants, or they may be fixed to the ceiling directly (similar to troffer lights).


For many years other lights have been used to illuminate vast spaces.  These include Metal Halide (MH), High Pressure Sodium (HPS), and fluorescent lighting. You might wonder why LED high bay lights are the most suitable for most high bay lighting requirements.


Here are some comparative points about industrial LED high bay lighting in contrast to its conventional counterparts. Take note that industrial LED lighting can easily outperform its conventional counterparts in essential ways.


Industrial LED Lighting vs Metal Halide High Bay Lights:


If you’ve ever been to a ballgame, chances are that the lights illuminating the field are metal halide. Most of MH lamps are common in sporting and warehouse/industrial uses as well as any setting where large, high spaces need to be illuminated. The benefits of MH lights include decent color rendering and comparatively adequate foot-candle levels (as opposed to other types of conventional bulbs). But they do have major drawbacks.  MH lamps take a long time to warm up (sometimes as much as 15-30 minutes); they are expensive to maintain; their failure characteristics include flickering on and off; and very importantly much of the energy they produce is wasted as heat.


LED High Bay Lighting vs High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lights:


HPS lights are often used in warehouse, industrial, business, and recreational facilities where high bay lighting is appropriate. They possess several benefits.  To begin with, they are relatively inexpensive.  They possess high energy efficiency which means that they have low operating costs.  And quite notably they have a relatively long lifespan. Although HPS lighting technology retains these advantages over most conventional bulbs they lose on all three counts to LED high bay lighting. The downsides of HPS bulbs include the worst color rendering on the market and a fairly long warm up period. LED light possess excellent color rendering and do not exhibit long warm up periods.


Industrial LED Lighting vs Fluorescent Lighting:


Although somewhat less common, fluorescent lighting is sometimes utilized in warehouse or industrial applications (primarily T12, T8, and T5 lights). The benefits of fluorescent lights include cheaper initial costs and relatively high efficiency, especially when compared to other conventional bulbs and a relatively long lifespan when compared to other conventional light sources. The downsides of fluorescent lighting most importantly include the presence of toxic mercury (which requires certain waste disposal procedures), a decrease in its lifetime if continuously switched on and off, a long warm up time, the need of ballast to stabilize the light and probably the worst color rendering on the market


Precision Designed Optics


High performance LED high bay lighting is the lighting solution for a huge range of applications and various mounting heights. What makes LED high bay lighting the ideal solution for commercial, industrial, and recreational applications are the choice of lumen outputs and the precision-designed optics. The mounting height for this technology would be suitable for pendant and row mounting. It also has stainless steel clips, chain or stem mount.


LED high bay lighting features designed optics available in multiple distributions which means that it has been designed to satisfy multiple mounting heights including low bay applications. It also provides exceptional optical performance via its low brightness, low power module assembly. The enhanced benefits of LED lighting include energy savings, extended system life, and reduction in carbon footprint.


WORLDBOND LED lighting systems offers LED high bay lighting system designed to be used for large areas and manufactured to your specific requirement with excellent lighting quality and long life of the system.  Have a question regarding High Bay lighting or any LED lighting system?  Visit our website at or better yet call us at Peninsula Technical Sales 650-965-36366 or e-mail us


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

led lights

Questions that Must Be Answered When Buying LED Lights

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Are you looking to buy LED lights?


To get the right LED bulbs for retrofit lighting, there are certain factors you must consider. For someone with little to no knowledge about the technical specifications, shopping for LED lights can be daunting.


Below is a list of questions you should ask when buying LED lights.


  1. What type of bulbs are used in the existing fixtures?

Your options are Metal Halide, Fluorescent, High Intensity discharge (HID), and others. Each one produces light in different ways and is structured just as differently. A Metal Halide, for example, will require a ballast to work.

So find out what bulbs are used in the existing fixture you have at home or in the office.


  1. What is the current type of fixture that the bulb is installed in?


See if the bulb is placed in a:

  • Troffer – A rectangular light fixture commonly used in offices, classrooms, and other workplaces.
  • High Bay – Typically hangs from the ceiling off chains, hooks, or pendants. High bay fixtures are commonly used in wide spaces, such as warehouses and manufacturing firms.
  • Wall Washers – These are fixtures used for recessed lighting.
  • Flood – These are designed to house halogen, metal halide, CFL, and incandescent lights.
  • Parking Lot – As the name suggests, these fixtures are used to illuminate parking areas. This requires a bulb that emits the right brightness and color rendering.


If the fixtures you have are not on the list, seek professional advice.


  1. What are the fixture dimensions?

Different fixtures have different dimensions. Take out your measuring tape and start measuring. Make sure to specify the state units—cm, inch, ft., etc.


  1. Does the Fixture have a reflector?

The addition of a reflector can make a difference in the light emitted. The answer is either Yes or No.


  1. Can the reflector be removed?

A removable reflector offers the kind of flexibility that some people look for. Check the existing reflector and answer either Yes or No.


  1. What is the Mounting Height?

The mounting height can be measured in M, Ft., or Yds. Your measurement will identify if you need a bulb with higher wattage or not.


  1. Are there mounting requirements?

When mounting a lighting fixture, you may need extra tools or accessories.

Yes, could mean additional cost and work. You will also need to specify if the mounting requirement is Vertical or Horizontal.

No means installation will be easy.


  1. Any mounting requirement or concerns?

Make sure to indicate all that matters so a suitable solution can be provided for each requirement or concern.

Other questions you must answer are:

  1. What Quantity is needed?
  2. How many lamps are needed?
  3. Additional Fixture needed?              □ Yes      □ No.
    1. If Yes, how many?
  4. Do you have multiple heads per pole? □ Yes     □No
  5. What is the wattage of the current bulb(s)?
  6. What is the voltage of the current bulb(s)?
  7. In what application is the light used?

□ Retail

□ Office Building

□ Manufacturing

□ Warehouse

Parking garage or lot

□ Other:  Specify

  1. What color temperature is preferred (Kelvin measure)? □Warmer      □ Cooler
  2. Any additional specifications/requirements?

□ DLC approved

□ UL approved

□ Other Certification:  Specify: ___________________________________________

□ Dimmable

□ Surge protection

□ Emergency lighting

  1. Do you presently have?

□ Photo Sensors

□ Motion Sensors

□ Daylight Harvesting

  1. Is the end user satisfied with the current light level? □Yes    □ No
  2. If No, what modification to the light level need be done?
  3. D WB to determine the financial benefit of an LED retrofit? □ Yes  □ No

If yes, please provide a current monthly electricity bill for review.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.


Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect (CPCI) Power Supplies Overview

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PCI was the first universal, processor-independent computer bus that was adopted by all major microprocessor manufacturers. Hundreds of processors chipsets and thousands of peripheral chips utilize PCI. By leveraging low cost silicon and software developed for PCI, Compact PCI has become the world’s most popular modular open computer architecture designed for embedded applications.


Compact PCI systems have increasingly been used in aerospace, industrial, communications, military, and other applications. Unlike other electronic systems and setups, the PCI system requires a specific type of power supply— A Compact PCI system power supply (cPCI).


This power supply represents the leading cPCI AC/DC products in the industry. It can be used as a single power supply, as multiple units, or in parallel when there is a need for a higher power capability.


When paired with the DPCI series, the combination represents the DC input in the CPCI series’ AC input, completing the cPCI AC/DC combination.


The cPCI AC/DC power supply offers a highly reliable power source and high-density plug-in modules that meet the  PICMG® power interface specification required for Compact PCI systems.


The cPCI AC/DC power supply can deliver up to 500W of continuous power. Depending on the make and model, it can use the standard Positronic 47-pin connector and may incorporate active power factor correction or, to make it ideal in every application, with 85-264VAC universal or DC input models. The DC models cover a range from 18 to 72VDC.


Why are Compact PCI Power Supplies highly efficient?

The power supply’s high efficiency and power density come from the advanced component and circuit technologies that are used in manufacturing the Compact PCI power supply. These include the

  • Synchronous rectification – A technique used to improve the efficiency of rectification.
  • Low profile transformers – Used in small-sized yet powerful transformers designed for communication, media, and industrial applications.
  • SMT (Surface-mount technology) components – are mounted or placed directly on the surface of PCBs.


Moreover, Compact PCI Power Supplies can be designed in a way that they can meet unique load requirements for each different channel. The flexibility is achieved when two converters in parallel are used. One is for the +3.3V while the other is for the +5V.

Each channel can provide full load independently, providing engineers with the flexibility they need to meet different design requirements.


General Specifications

Although Compact PCI Power Supplies are available in different designs and models, the better quality supplies have the following features:

Overvoltage Protection:  This feature protects the load against induced overvoltage. It provides a trip-point that ensures the output voltage will not exceed 136% of nominal.

Overload Protection: This feature ensures that all outputs are safe from overloads and short circuits. Upon removal of a fault condition, the restoring of normal operations is automatic


Cooling: This feature meets the required 15 cfm, 400 lfm airflow.

Thermal Protection : This feature automatically shuts down the power supply when it overheats and allows recovery automatically as well.

Low Leakage: This feature indicates that a leakage current is less than 0.5 mA per unit.


Jasper Electronics products Headquartered in Anaheim, designs and manufactures power supplies including cPCI.


Jasper Electronic Compact PCI Power Supplies comply with the industry standard PICMG requirements. AC or DC input, 175W to 500W DC output. These designs are available in redundant 3U and 6U form factor.

  • AC/DC: 90-264Vac Input – 175, 200, 250, 300, 350 & 500 Watt Models – 3U & 6U x 8HP
  • DC/DC: 18-72Vdc Input – 175, 200, 250, 300, 350 & 500 Watt Models – 3U & 6U x8 HP
  • PICMG 2.11 Compliant – Active PFC – UL/CSA, NEMKO/TUV & CE Certified – RoHS Compliant
  • Current Sharing on 3.3, 5 & +12V Rails – Hot Swap & ORing Diodes N+1 Operation
  • Standard 47 Pin Output Connector With 38 & 32 Pin options Modifications To Suit Your System Requirements Are Our Specialty


Peninsula Technical Sales has expert knowledge of power supplies and would be happy to answer any questions regarding cPCI or other power supplies and help in the selection of the appropriate power supply for your specific need. Please call us at (650)965-3636, e-mail us at We invite you to visit our web site at


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

log video amplifiers in radar

Log Video Amplifiers: What Are They and What Are Their Applications?

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To deal with signals that have high density pulses with narrow pulse widths and large amplitude variations it is often necessary to utilize Logarithmic Amplifiers. Logarithmic (Log) Amplifiers (Amps) compress a large input dynamic range into smaller more usable dynamic ranges through the use of a logarithmic transfer function. There are three types of logarithmic amplifiers: The Detector Log Video Amplifier (DLVA), the Successive Detection Log Video Amplifiers (SDLVA) and the True Log Amplifier (TLA).


What is a Detector Log Video Amplifier?

DLVA’s are employed to convert RF signals with a relatively large dynamic range to RF signals in a smaller dynamic range.  These video signals are suitable for presentation on active displays or within the dynamic range of Digital-to-Analog converting circuits. DLVA’s can convert 70dB or greater RF dynamic range signals into, as an example, 30dB, maximum video dynamic range. The precise logarithmic transfer function of a DLVA provides relatively easy interpretation of RF signal strengths from these video signal amplitudes.



The DLVAs are most commonly found in applications in which the input RF signal is directly converted into a video signal without the need of down conversion. The result of this direct conversion is a very wide capability which improves the probability of interception of present RF signals. Thus, the use of a detector log video amplifiers in detection applications such as phased array radar receivers, passive direction-finding receivers (radar warning receivers) and channelized receivers, secure airbase perimeter protection to detect unauthorized aircraft intrusion.  Other applications include utilization in laboratory test equipment, specialized test equipment and channelized receivers.


What is an SDLVA?

The Successive Detection Log Video Amplifiers (SDLVA) use circuitry that does not require detection before the logging process. Similar to the DLVA, the SDLVA preserve the amplitude information. They both use multiple compressive stages of RF gain to emulate the exponential transfer function. The output of each stage is coupled into a linear detector. The typical dynamic range of each amplifier/detector stage is approximately 10 dB; therefore, many such stages are required to cover a large dynamic range. The outputs of each detector stage are then summed in a single video amplifier so as to provide a single detected output. SDLVAs can produce a limited RF/IF output from a separate port. This output is an amplified and limited replica of the input signal.


Successive detection log video amplifiers can also provide very fast pulse rise and settling times because the signal gain and compression takes place in RF circuitry.


SDLVAs are often used in radar missile homing systems, radar altimeters and to drive phase detectors or frequency discriminators. It is an analog device that measures RF power at a frequency range from below 1 GHz to tens of GHz. It exhibits faster rise and fall times at a flat frequency when compared with other RF detectors.


The ICs containing SDLVA are provided either in compact SMT ceramic packages or bare die.


What are SDLVA applications?

The design of an SDLVA is suited for applications in Broadband Test and Measurement, Direction Finding Receivers, Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Electronic Warfare (EW), Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) Receivers, and Radar.


Combined together, these devices can produce another device with a different purpose. By using both DLVAs and SDLVAs a broadband log video amplifier can be created.


What is a broadband log video amplifier?

It is a series of log video amplifiers made up of SDLVA and DLVA that offer broadband with a performance of multi-octave frequency from 0.5 GHz to 18 GHz.


Because of the combination of SDLVA and DLVA, it can process a dynamic range of up to 75 dB with a Fast recovery time that ranges from 40 to 150 nsec.


The broadband log video amplifiers on the market feature a 50-ohm hybrid circuit enclosed in rugged metal packages. Combined with SMA connectors, it is designed to be highly reliable and to satisfy MIL-STD-202F environmental conditions. This guarantees an operating performance that ranges from -40°C to +90°C.


What is the application of a broadband log video amplifier?
  • It is used to measure signals that are of high frequency and those that widely vary.
  • It is used when rapid and precise tracking across the entire frequency band is required.
  • In radar and EW systems, the amplifiers are used for finding direction and monitoring power.
  • It is used to test equipment in laboratories and in telecommunications and data communication systems.


Where frequencies are involved, you are likely to find a DLVA or SDLVA somewhere in a device.


AKON Inc, San Jose has developed a new DLVA that operates from 18 to 40 GHz frequency range. This new DLVA has 65 dB dynamic logging range with a log accuracy of +/- 2 dB over 80% of the band. AKON’s DLVA has a fast rise time of 10 nS and a 40 nS fall time. AKON products are designed to withstand the demanding environments of Military, Space and Industrial applications. For further information on Akon products visit their web site.


Peninsula Technical Sales is an expert on DLVA/s, SDLVAs, and integrated systems and components. Please call us for any questions you might have at 650-965-3636 and visit us on our web page.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

dielectric resonator - radar

Dielectric Resonator Oscillators

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Dielectrics are poor conductors of electricity and can be thought of as non-conductive materials or insulators. Dialectrical materials are an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields which can store energy. Most common uses of these materials are in capacitor, power transformer, cables, spark generators, transducers, and in the construction of radio-frequency transmission lines. In general, dielectric materials are solid such as porcelain (ceramic), mica, glass, plastics, and the oxides of various metals although some liquids and gases can serve as good dielectric materials. The characteristics of dielectrics make it essential for use in electronics.  The dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) is an excellent example of an application of dielectric materials.


Oscillators represent the basic energy source for all RF and microwave systems. A typical microwave oscillator consists of an active device (i.e. a diode or a transistor) and either a single passive frequency-determining resonant element or a resonant circuit with several circuit elements. The primary function of DROs is to control the frequency of the radio waves generated. Companion voltage controlled diodes are used in order to tune the DRO to different frequencies.


DROs such as those made by Synergy Microwave in Paterson, N.J. are used widely in electronic warfare, missile, radar and communication systems in both the military and commercial applications. DROs are preferred because they are known to have low phase noise, a stable frequency in an unstable temperature setting, compatibility with other circuit elements, a resistance to being susceptible to harsh surroundings and allowing for compact and simple build reproducibility. A dielectric resonator oscillator can operate in the tens of gigahertz frequency ranges and is usually made of ceramic material formed into a cylindrical shape. The DRO is considered as one of the most important microwave devices.


Dielectric Resonator Vs Resonant Metal Cavities

A resonator is a device which naturally oscillates at some frequency or frequencies at a greater amplitude than at others. The oscillations in a resonator can be either electromagnetic or mechanical. Resonators are used to either generate waves of specific frequencies or to enable the selection of specific frequencies from a signal.


A cavity resonator is one in which waves exist in a hollow space inside the cavity. Microwave cavities consisting of hollow metal boxes and are used in microwave transmitters, receivers and test equipment to control frequency.  They are used in place of the tuned circuits which may have several elements and are used at lower frequencies.


One of the characteristics that distinguish dielectric resonators from resonant metal cavities is the presence or absence of magnetic and electric fields. In a resonant metal cavity there is zero magnetic and electric fields on the dielectric walls outside of the resonator


Tuning Techniques

Dielectric resonator oscillator tuning is done by changing the electromagnetic fields that are supported by the resonator. There are various non-mechanical ways to tune DROs namely with optical elements, varactor diodes, and ferrite elements. Varactor diode tuning seems to be the most efficient and practical way to tune DROs since the other two ways have known difficulties associated with them.


The DRO can possibly be tuned over a 10 percent frequency bandwidth by disturbing the resonator’s magnetic field, which is achieved by changing the air gap between the enclosure and the ceramic cylinder.


Phase Locked Loop DROs

Phase Locked Loop DROs are important when the phase noise factor is a crucial parameter.  Phase noise is an oscillator parameter that has grown in importance with the complexity of modern communications modulation formats. Synergy Microwave Corp in Paterson N.J. has developed a line of compact surface-mount-device (SMD) DROs with extremely low phase noise levels at fundamental-frequency outputs through 20GHz and higher, suitable for use in commercial, industrial, and military applications.


Peninsula Technical Sales has expert technical knowledge of DROs and related product. Visit our web page or call us at 650-969-3636. We are always delighted to answer your questions.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.