Category Archives: News

uninterruptible power systems - medical devices

The Necessity for Power Backup for Medical Devices

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Clinics and hospitals require uninterruptible power systems and reliable tools to ensure that power is continuously provided without interruption. Even in the case of total electrical power outages from whatever cause, electrical power is essential, and with a reliable UPS, power will still be distributed throughout the facility without compromise.


Despite major advancement in technology, there continues to be power sags and surges both of which can damage valuable computer equipment and medical imaging devices and may be responsible for halting medical procedures. This is particularly true in medical facilities where there has been a growing use of electronics and an increasing demand on power supplies to run medical equipment. To heighten the problem, oftentimes medical settings are operating out of buildings that have an older electrical infrastructure. This results in more frequent power failures, spikes, voltage drops and brown outs which can damage the costly vital medical equipment and impact patient safety.


For this reason, it is essential to plan and deploy a robust solution for potential power interruptions. Aside from installing generators, the installation of uninterruptible power systems in the facility plays a major role in any well-designed power protection architecture assuring that medical data from medical records to lab results and critical care equipment are protected from all types of power issues.


Importance of Power Protection


Mission critical medical equipment often requires clean, conditioned power protection from power surges and from uninterrupted power during power outages. Power outages can be troublesome even if they last only seconds or fraction of seconds. In fact, losing power for a matter of split seconds can trigger many untoward events including causing medical equipment to be unavailable for minutes to hours.


But it is not just power outages that cause problems. Having reliable power quality along with voltage regulation and harmonic mitigation are essential to sustaining both the reliability of the equipment and the life of the equipment.


Although generators are effective in sustaining proper systems operation in the event of long utility outages, a UPS can bridge the power time gap between the actual loss of electrical power and the generator assuming the power supply role. One may consider the UPS to be a device that provides backup power when there is failure in the utility power allowing the system to shut down gracefully while avoiding any data loss and very importantly sustaining electrical power long enough to keep the needed loads operational until the generator is back online.


Imaging Equipment and More


Diagnostic imaging systems such as Ultrasound, MRI, CT or X-ray, are now used both within and outside of hospitals. The imaging equipment exerts substantial power demands and has unique power requirements. Although imaging equipment when idle uses very little power when scanning, the power demands spike up quickly. Any abrupt power fluctuations and outages from the utility company, combined varying power demands can cause damage to the machine’s electronics. Uninterruptible power systems help prevent these undesirable outcomes, equipment breakdowns and losses.


However, imaging equipment is not the only area in which reliable power protection and management is necessary in the healthcare industry. Other areas in which power protection is as vital include clinical lab equipment that produces and stores medical research and processes such as biopsies; medical gas monitoring systems; medical and vaccine refrigerators and freezers; life support equipment and monitors; surgical equipment and operating rooms; home healthcare equipment such as CPAP units and O2 concentrators.


STACO ENERGY has a long history of providing uninterruptible power systems in the medical field both with seismic and OSHPD certification. STACO ENERGY PRODUCTS offers power conditioning equipment specifically to protect all types of imaging equipment as X-Ray, CAT scan and MRI from electrical damage. Available both in single and three phase interfaces, these UPS’s provide complete protection at a low cost and with a small foot print.


Have any questions regarding any power conditioning equipment? Call us at Peninsula Technical Sales 650-965-3636 or e-mail us at Please visit our web site at



Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

Industrial LED High Bay Lighting

LED High Bay Lighting

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High bay lighting is an industry standard term for the more heavy duty types of light fitting. These high bays are specifically designed to be used in very high areas from 20 to 40 ft. and to provide evenly distributed, uniform lighting for open areas. These high bay lights are used in spaces like manufacturing, industrial facilities, gymnasiums, warehouses, large department stores, factories, school and municipal facilities like community centers or recreation centers and commercial applications like department stores.


Because these facilities are typically vast and cover a great deal of vertical as well as horizontal space, they require powerful lighting to provide the appropriate foot-candle levels to adequately illuminate. A particular consideration for use with a high bay light is if it can illuminate vertical surfaces as well as have it illuminate the floor, or working plane. Lighting of verticals is particularly important when dealing with warehouses where items are required to be picked from a shelf.


Typically, high bay lighting fixtures hang from the ceiling via hooks, chains or pendants, or they may be fixed to the ceiling directly (similar to troffer lights).


For many years other lights have been used to illuminate vast spaces.  These include Metal Halide (MH), High Pressure Sodium (HPS), and fluorescent lighting. You might wonder why LED high bay lights are the most suitable for most high bay lighting requirements.


Here are some comparative points about industrial LED high bay lighting in contrast to its conventional counterparts. Take note that industrial LED lighting can easily outperform its conventional counterparts in essential ways.


Industrial LED Lighting vs Metal Halide High Bay Lights:


If you’ve ever been to a ballgame, chances are that the lights illuminating the field are metal halide. Most of MH lamps are common in sporting and warehouse/industrial uses as well as any setting where large, high spaces need to be illuminated. The benefits of MH lights include decent color rendering and comparatively adequate foot-candle levels (as opposed to other types of conventional bulbs). But they do have major drawbacks.  MH lamps take a long time to warm up (sometimes as much as 15-30 minutes); they are expensive to maintain; their failure characteristics include flickering on and off; and very importantly much of the energy they produce is wasted as heat.


LED High Bay Lighting vs High Pressure Sodium (HPS) lights:


HPS lights are often used in warehouse, industrial, business, and recreational facilities where high bay lighting is appropriate. They possess several benefits.  To begin with, they are relatively inexpensive.  They possess high energy efficiency which means that they have low operating costs.  And quite notably they have a relatively long lifespan. Although HPS lighting technology retains these advantages over most conventional bulbs they lose on all three counts to LED high bay lighting. The downsides of HPS bulbs include the worst color rendering on the market and a fairly long warm up period. LED light possess excellent color rendering and do not exhibit long warm up periods.


Industrial LED Lighting vs Fluorescent Lighting:


Although somewhat less common, fluorescent lighting is sometimes utilized in warehouse or industrial applications (primarily T12, T8, and T5 lights). The benefits of fluorescent lights include cheaper initial costs and relatively high efficiency, especially when compared to other conventional bulbs and a relatively long lifespan when compared to other conventional light sources. The downsides of fluorescent lighting most importantly include the presence of toxic mercury (which requires certain waste disposal procedures), a decrease in its lifetime if continuously switched on and off, a long warm up time, the need of ballast to stabilize the light and probably the worst color rendering on the market


Precision Designed Optics


High performance LED high bay lighting is the lighting solution for a huge range of applications and various mounting heights. What makes LED high bay lighting the ideal solution for commercial, industrial, and recreational applications are the choice of lumen outputs and the precision-designed optics. The mounting height for this technology would be suitable for pendant and row mounting. It also has stainless steel clips, chain or stem mount.


LED high bay lighting features designed optics available in multiple distributions which means that it has been designed to satisfy multiple mounting heights including low bay applications. It also provides exceptional optical performance via its low brightness, low power module assembly. The enhanced benefits of LED lighting include energy savings, extended system life, and reduction in carbon footprint.


WORLDBOND LED lighting systems offers LED high bay lighting system designed to be used for large areas and manufactured to your specific requirement with excellent lighting quality and long life of the system.  Have a question regarding High Bay lighting or any LED lighting system?  Visit our website at or better yet call us at Peninsula Technical Sales 650-965-36366 or e-mail us


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

led lights

Questions that Must Be Answered When Buying LED Lights

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Are you looking to buy LED lights?


To get the right LED bulbs for retrofit lighting, there are certain factors you must consider. For someone with little to no knowledge about the technical specifications, shopping for LED lights can be daunting.


Below is a list of questions you should ask when buying LED lights.


  1. What type of bulbs are used in the existing fixtures?

Your options are Metal Halide, Fluorescent, High Intensity discharge (HID), and others. Each one produces light in different ways and is structured just as differently. A Metal Halide, for example, will require a ballast to work.

So find out what bulbs are used in the existing fixture you have at home or in the office.


  1. What is the current type of fixture that the bulb is installed in?


See if the bulb is placed in a:

  • Troffer – A rectangular light fixture commonly used in offices, classrooms, and other workplaces.
  • High Bay – Typically hangs from the ceiling off chains, hooks, or pendants. High bay fixtures are commonly used in wide spaces, such as warehouses and manufacturing firms.
  • Wall Washers – These are fixtures used for recessed lighting.
  • Flood – These are designed to house halogen, metal halide, CFL, and incandescent lights.
  • Parking Lot – As the name suggests, these fixtures are used to illuminate parking areas. This requires a bulb that emits the right brightness and color rendering.


If the fixtures you have are not on the list, seek professional advice.


  1. What are the fixture dimensions?

Different fixtures have different dimensions. Take out your measuring tape and start measuring. Make sure to specify the state units—cm, inch, ft., etc.


  1. Does the Fixture have a reflector?

The addition of a reflector can make a difference in the light emitted. The answer is either Yes or No.


  1. Can the reflector be removed?

A removable reflector offers the kind of flexibility that some people look for. Check the existing reflector and answer either Yes or No.


  1. What is the Mounting Height?

The mounting height can be measured in M, Ft., or Yds. Your measurement will identify if you need a bulb with higher wattage or not.


  1. Are there mounting requirements?

When mounting a lighting fixture, you may need extra tools or accessories.

Yes, could mean additional cost and work. You will also need to specify if the mounting requirement is Vertical or Horizontal.

No means installation will be easy.


  1. Any mounting requirement or concerns?

Make sure to indicate all that matters so a suitable solution can be provided for each requirement or concern.

Other questions you must answer are:

  1. What Quantity is needed?
  2. How many lamps are needed?
  3. Additional Fixture needed?              □ Yes      □ No.
    1. If Yes, how many?
  4. Do you have multiple heads per pole? □ Yes     □No
  5. What is the wattage of the current bulb(s)?
  6. What is the voltage of the current bulb(s)?
  7. In what application is the light used?

□ Retail

□ Office Building

□ Manufacturing

□ Warehouse

Parking garage or lot

□ Other:  Specify

  1. What color temperature is preferred (Kelvin measure)? □Warmer      □ Cooler
  2. Any additional specifications/requirements?

□ DLC approved

□ UL approved

□ Other Certification:  Specify: ___________________________________________

□ Dimmable

□ Surge protection

□ Emergency lighting

  1. Do you presently have?

□ Photo Sensors

□ Motion Sensors

□ Daylight Harvesting

  1. Is the end user satisfied with the current light level? □Yes    □ No
  2. If No, what modification to the light level need be done?
  3. D WB to determine the financial benefit of an LED retrofit? □ Yes  □ No

If yes, please provide a current monthly electricity bill for review.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.


Compact Peripheral Component Interconnect (CPCI) Power Supplies Overview

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PCI was the first universal, processor-independent computer bus that was adopted by all major microprocessor manufacturers. Hundreds of processors chipsets and thousands of peripheral chips utilize PCI. By leveraging low cost silicon and software developed for PCI, Compact PCI has become the world’s most popular modular open computer architecture designed for embedded applications.


Compact PCI systems have increasingly been used in aerospace, industrial, communications, military, and other applications. Unlike other electronic systems and setups, the PCI system requires a specific type of power supply— A Compact PCI system power supply (cPCI).


This power supply represents the leading cPCI AC/DC products in the industry. It can be used as a single power supply, as multiple units, or in parallel when there is a need for a higher power capability.


When paired with the DPCI series, the combination represents the DC input in the CPCI series’ AC input, completing the cPCI AC/DC combination.


The cPCI AC/DC power supply offers a highly reliable power source and high-density plug-in modules that meet the  PICMG® power interface specification required for Compact PCI systems.


The cPCI AC/DC power supply can deliver up to 500W of continuous power. Depending on the make and model, it can use the standard Positronic 47-pin connector and may incorporate active power factor correction or, to make it ideal in every application, with 85-264VAC universal or DC input models. The DC models cover a range from 18 to 72VDC.


Why are Compact PCI Power Supplies highly efficient?

The power supply’s high efficiency and power density come from the advanced component and circuit technologies that are used in manufacturing the Compact PCI power supply. These include the

  • Synchronous rectification – A technique used to improve the efficiency of rectification.
  • Low profile transformers – Used in small-sized yet powerful transformers designed for communication, media, and industrial applications.
  • SMT (Surface-mount technology) components – are mounted or placed directly on the surface of PCBs.


Moreover, Compact PCI Power Supplies can be designed in a way that they can meet unique load requirements for each different channel. The flexibility is achieved when two converters in parallel are used. One is for the +3.3V while the other is for the +5V.

Each channel can provide full load independently, providing engineers with the flexibility they need to meet different design requirements.


General Specifications

Although Compact PCI Power Supplies are available in different designs and models, the better quality supplies have the following features:

Overvoltage Protection:  This feature protects the load against induced overvoltage. It provides a trip-point that ensures the output voltage will not exceed 136% of nominal.

Overload Protection: This feature ensures that all outputs are safe from overloads and short circuits. Upon removal of a fault condition, the restoring of normal operations is automatic


Cooling: This feature meets the required 15 cfm, 400 lfm airflow.

Thermal Protection : This feature automatically shuts down the power supply when it overheats and allows recovery automatically as well.

Low Leakage: This feature indicates that a leakage current is less than 0.5 mA per unit.


Jasper Electronics products Headquartered in Anaheim, designs and manufactures power supplies including cPCI.


Jasper Electronic Compact PCI Power Supplies comply with the industry standard PICMG requirements. AC or DC input, 175W to 500W DC output. These designs are available in redundant 3U and 6U form factor.

  • AC/DC: 90-264Vac Input – 175, 200, 250, 300, 350 & 500 Watt Models – 3U & 6U x 8HP
  • DC/DC: 18-72Vdc Input – 175, 200, 250, 300, 350 & 500 Watt Models – 3U & 6U x8 HP
  • PICMG 2.11 Compliant – Active PFC – UL/CSA, NEMKO/TUV & CE Certified – RoHS Compliant
  • Current Sharing on 3.3, 5 & +12V Rails – Hot Swap & ORing Diodes N+1 Operation
  • Standard 47 Pin Output Connector With 38 & 32 Pin options Modifications To Suit Your System Requirements Are Our Specialty


Peninsula Technical Sales has expert knowledge of power supplies and would be happy to answer any questions regarding cPCI or other power supplies and help in the selection of the appropriate power supply for your specific need. Please call us at (650)965-3636, e-mail us at We invite you to visit our web site at


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

log video amplifiers in radar

Log Video Amplifiers: What Are They and What Are Their Applications?

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To deal with signals that have high density pulses with narrow pulse widths and large amplitude variations it is often necessary to utilize Logarithmic Amplifiers. Logarithmic (Log) Amplifiers (Amps) compress a large input dynamic range into smaller more usable dynamic ranges through the use of a logarithmic transfer function. There are three types of logarithmic amplifiers: The Detector Log Video Amplifier (DLVA), the Successive Detection Log Video Amplifiers (SDLVA) and the True Log Amplifier (TLA).


What is a Detector Log Video Amplifier?

DLVA’s are employed to convert RF signals with a relatively large dynamic range to RF signals in a smaller dynamic range.  These video signals are suitable for presentation on active displays or within the dynamic range of Digital-to-Analog converting circuits. DLVA’s can convert 70dB or greater RF dynamic range signals into, as an example, 30dB, maximum video dynamic range. The precise logarithmic transfer function of a DLVA provides relatively easy interpretation of RF signal strengths from these video signal amplitudes.



The DLVAs are most commonly found in applications in which the input RF signal is directly converted into a video signal without the need of down conversion. The result of this direct conversion is a very wide capability which improves the probability of interception of present RF signals. Thus, the use of a detector log video amplifiers in detection applications such as phased array radar receivers, passive direction-finding receivers (radar warning receivers) and channelized receivers, secure airbase perimeter protection to detect unauthorized aircraft intrusion.  Other applications include utilization in laboratory test equipment, specialized test equipment and channelized receivers.


What is an SDLVA?

The Successive Detection Log Video Amplifiers (SDLVA) use circuitry that does not require detection before the logging process. Similar to the DLVA, the SDLVA preserve the amplitude information. They both use multiple compressive stages of RF gain to emulate the exponential transfer function. The output of each stage is coupled into a linear detector. The typical dynamic range of each amplifier/detector stage is approximately 10 dB; therefore, many such stages are required to cover a large dynamic range. The outputs of each detector stage are then summed in a single video amplifier so as to provide a single detected output. SDLVAs can produce a limited RF/IF output from a separate port. This output is an amplified and limited replica of the input signal.


Successive detection log video amplifiers can also provide very fast pulse rise and settling times because the signal gain and compression takes place in RF circuitry.


SDLVAs are often used in radar missile homing systems, radar altimeters and to drive phase detectors or frequency discriminators. It is an analog device that measures RF power at a frequency range from below 1 GHz to tens of GHz. It exhibits faster rise and fall times at a flat frequency when compared with other RF detectors.


The ICs containing SDLVA are provided either in compact SMT ceramic packages or bare die.


What are SDLVA applications?

The design of an SDLVA is suited for applications in Broadband Test and Measurement, Direction Finding Receivers, Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Electronic Warfare (EW), Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) Receivers, and Radar.


Combined together, these devices can produce another device with a different purpose. By using both DLVAs and SDLVAs a broadband log video amplifier can be created.


What is a broadband log video amplifier?

It is a series of log video amplifiers made up of SDLVA and DLVA that offer broadband with a performance of multi-octave frequency from 0.5 GHz to 18 GHz.


Because of the combination of SDLVA and DLVA, it can process a dynamic range of up to 75 dB with a Fast recovery time that ranges from 40 to 150 nsec.


The broadband log video amplifiers on the market feature a 50-ohm hybrid circuit enclosed in rugged metal packages. Combined with SMA connectors, it is designed to be highly reliable and to satisfy MIL-STD-202F environmental conditions. This guarantees an operating performance that ranges from -40°C to +90°C.


What is the application of a broadband log video amplifier?
  • It is used to measure signals that are of high frequency and those that widely vary.
  • It is used when rapid and precise tracking across the entire frequency band is required.
  • In radar and EW systems, the amplifiers are used for finding direction and monitoring power.
  • It is used to test equipment in laboratories and in telecommunications and data communication systems.


Where frequencies are involved, you are likely to find a DLVA or SDLVA somewhere in a device.


AKON Inc, San Jose has developed a new DLVA that operates from 18 to 40 GHz frequency range. This new DLVA has 65 dB dynamic logging range with a log accuracy of +/- 2 dB over 80% of the band. AKON’s DLVA has a fast rise time of 10 nS and a 40 nS fall time. AKON products are designed to withstand the demanding environments of Military, Space and Industrial applications. For further information on Akon products visit their web site.


Peninsula Technical Sales is an expert on DLVA/s, SDLVAs, and integrated systems and components. Please call us for any questions you might have at 650-965-3636 and visit us on our web page.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

dielectric resonator - radar

Dielectric Resonator Oscillators

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Dielectrics are poor conductors of electricity and can be thought of as non-conductive materials or insulators. Dialectrical materials are an efficient supporter of electrostatic fields which can store energy. Most common uses of these materials are in capacitor, power transformer, cables, spark generators, transducers, and in the construction of radio-frequency transmission lines. In general, dielectric materials are solid such as porcelain (ceramic), mica, glass, plastics, and the oxides of various metals although some liquids and gases can serve as good dielectric materials. The characteristics of dielectrics make it essential for use in electronics.  The dielectric resonator oscillator (DRO) is an excellent example of an application of dielectric materials.


Oscillators represent the basic energy source for all RF and microwave systems. A typical microwave oscillator consists of an active device (i.e. a diode or a transistor) and either a single passive frequency-determining resonant element or a resonant circuit with several circuit elements. The primary function of DROs is to control the frequency of the radio waves generated. Companion voltage controlled diodes are used in order to tune the DRO to different frequencies.


DROs such as those made by Synergy Microwave in Paterson, N.J. are used widely in electronic warfare, missile, radar and communication systems in both the military and commercial applications. DROs are preferred because they are known to have low phase noise, a stable frequency in an unstable temperature setting, compatibility with other circuit elements, a resistance to being susceptible to harsh surroundings and allowing for compact and simple build reproducibility. A dielectric resonator oscillator can operate in the tens of gigahertz frequency ranges and is usually made of ceramic material formed into a cylindrical shape. The DRO is considered as one of the most important microwave devices.


Dielectric Resonator Vs Resonant Metal Cavities

A resonator is a device which naturally oscillates at some frequency or frequencies at a greater amplitude than at others. The oscillations in a resonator can be either electromagnetic or mechanical. Resonators are used to either generate waves of specific frequencies or to enable the selection of specific frequencies from a signal.


A cavity resonator is one in which waves exist in a hollow space inside the cavity. Microwave cavities consisting of hollow metal boxes and are used in microwave transmitters, receivers and test equipment to control frequency.  They are used in place of the tuned circuits which may have several elements and are used at lower frequencies.


One of the characteristics that distinguish dielectric resonators from resonant metal cavities is the presence or absence of magnetic and electric fields. In a resonant metal cavity there is zero magnetic and electric fields on the dielectric walls outside of the resonator


Tuning Techniques

Dielectric resonator oscillator tuning is done by changing the electromagnetic fields that are supported by the resonator. There are various non-mechanical ways to tune DROs namely with optical elements, varactor diodes, and ferrite elements. Varactor diode tuning seems to be the most efficient and practical way to tune DROs since the other two ways have known difficulties associated with them.


The DRO can possibly be tuned over a 10 percent frequency bandwidth by disturbing the resonator’s magnetic field, which is achieved by changing the air gap between the enclosure and the ceramic cylinder.


Phase Locked Loop DROs

Phase Locked Loop DROs are important when the phase noise factor is a crucial parameter.  Phase noise is an oscillator parameter that has grown in importance with the complexity of modern communications modulation formats. Synergy Microwave Corp in Paterson N.J. has developed a line of compact surface-mount-device (SMD) DROs with extremely low phase noise levels at fundamental-frequency outputs through 20GHz and higher, suitable for use in commercial, industrial, and military applications.


Peninsula Technical Sales has expert technical knowledge of DROs and related product. Visit our web page or call us at 650-969-3636. We are always delighted to answer your questions.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

led lighting

How to Select the Best LED Lighting

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Reducing energy costs is a key consideration in providing electrical power no matter in what environment. LED lighting is one of the main ways to decrease electrical energy costs.


An LED lamp produces light using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). These LED lamps have a lifespan and electrical efficiency which are several times greater than incandescent lamps and significantly more efficient than most fluorescent lamps utilizing chips which are capable of emitting more than 300 lumens per watt. Here is a comparison of the different lighting lamps and their respective specifications and performance including cost. The LED lighting values are obtained from the range of performance from different LED manufacturers.


Incandescent Halogen CFL LED Light
Watts 60 43 14 8.5-9.5
lumens (mean) 860 750 775 800-815
lumens/watt 14.3 17.4 55.4 85.8-94
Color Temperature kelvin 2700 2920 2700 2700
CRI 100 100 82 80-85
Lifespan (hours) 1,000 1,000 10,000 10-25,000
Lamp lifetime in years @ 6 hours/day 0.46 0.46 4.6 4.6-11.4
Energy cost over 20 years @ 12.5 cents/kWh $315 $226 $74 $45-50
Total cost over 20 years $333 $277 $77 $51.4-58.2
Total cost per 860 lumens $333 $318 $85 $55-67


Selection Criteria to Keep in Mind

With all of the LED lamps and bulbs in the market it is sometimes difficult to know which light is the best for the specific circumstance. The selection of LED lighting should be based on certain specifications which will ensure the most appropriate lighting for the environment.


Wattage Rating

This refers to the amount of energy used when a lighting fixture is switched on. A 3-watt bulb consumes less power than a 10-watt bulb. An LED light can use lower wattage to produce the same intensity of light as an incandescent or fluorescent light source (lumen/watt).

Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) – The Kelvin Scale

Light color, or color temperature, is described using the Kelvin scale (K). LEDs are available in warm colors to match the yellowish light of incandescent bulbs or in cooler colors with whiter or bluer light. A lower kelvin number means the light appears more yellow; higher kelvin numbers mean the light is whiter or bluer. A CCT of  2700-3000K range will match the color of incandescent bulbs, a CCT of  3500-4100K range will emit a whiter light while a 5000-6500K range will provide a bluer white light. It is important to choose the appropriate color for the environment in which the lighting will be used.


Lumens (lm)

This measures the brightness level of the light source. The amount of wattage required to provide the same lumens is referred to as luminous efficiency or lumens per watt.


Color Rendering Index (CRI)

This is the current industry standard that measures the accuracy with which a light source renders the colors of objects it illuminates. 100 is the maximum value of a CRI. In other words, the CRI of a light source quantitatively measures the ability of the light source to reproduce the colors of various objects as compared with a natural sun light source. Most LED lights do not have a CRI above 90. However, the CRI has its challenges since a light that enhances some colors’ saturation, at the expense of fidelity, can be preferred by people.



Measured in lumens per watt (lm/W), this indicates how much light a lamp or a lighting system produces per unit of electrical power consumed.


Using these criteria, one may choose the best LED light for a specific area.


A home office, for example, would require an LED lighting fixture that has a total brightness level of 3000 to 6000 lumens and a color temperature of 3000 to 5000K. This is to ensure that an office space has cool white lights that mimic natural light, resulting in an increased production of serotonin necessary to keep people focused, energized, and alert.


For the bedroom, however, the lighting fixture most appropriate is almost the opposite of those used for the home office. The goal is to create a relaxed, peaceful, and calm atmosphere. The best option is an LED bulb with a total brightness level of 1500 to 4000 lumens and a color temperature of 2700 to 3000K.


In addition to the criteria listed above, you should also look for the stamp of safety standards on the label of LED lighting fixture and retrofitting kits.

  • UL Listed indicates that product samples used for laboratory testing meet UL’s safety requirements.
  • UL Classified indicates that the product has undergone evaluation for specific properties from a qualified laboratory.
  • UL Recognized indicates that a particular component is part of a larger specific system, such as an LED driver that is part of the luminaire housing.
  • ETL Listed indicates that a product has been tested and met the same minimum UL safety requirement.



WorldBond (WB) is the sole USA and Canadian arm for the sale of LED products made by one of the largest LED manufacturing companies in Asia DBA Tynrich which, since its inception in 2001, has established itself as the number 1 professional LED lighting supplier. Using only Cree & Nichia chips and Mean Well drivers, WorldBond LED lighting provides only the highest quality products. All products carry UL, CUS, and CE product certifications and have been exported to over 20 countries worldwide. WB focuses on the commercial and industrial US markets emphasizing external lighting in an incandescent lighting.


Visit our website for more information on LED lighting. You can also reach us at or call at (650)965-3636. We can help answer any questions you might have and aid you in choosing the most appropriate LED lighting.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

automatic voltage regulator cnc machine

Use of Automatic Voltage Regulators in Critical Applications

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Many voltage regulator technologies can correct voltage variations but most are designed for usage in data centers or other light commercial applications where the load and environmental conditions encountered are fairly benign. When computer-grade voltage regulators are used in industrial situations, there are several operational limitations that must be addressed. An industrial-grade automatic voltage regulator is specifically designed for the special challenges and requirements found in manufacturing applications or in situations where the load demands are severe.


What is an industrial power quality application?


While there is not a single definition for an industrial electrical application, it is true that there can be significant differences in the electrical “environment” found in offices, data centers and factories. The electrical characteristics found in industrial applications like machine shops, plastic manufacturers, food processors, commercial printers, etc. can include high load inrush currents, low power factor, significant load swings and significant amounts of harmonic frequencies. Voltage regulation problems account for more than 90% of the power problems seen at most sites.


Regardless of the type, however, an automatic voltage regulator has one critical function – to ensure that the output voltage delivered will be consistent with its load current even when fluctuations happen in the background. This eliminates the damage that fluctuations can cause to appliances, machines, and equipment.


Critical Applications of AVRs   


An automatic voltage regulator is used mostly on equipment possessing electronic parts which are sensitive to power surges or power fluctuations such as:


Medical Equipment:

Medical equipment requires high quality power, and a very stable voltage for accuracy of performance.


X-Ray, CT, MRI and other medical electronics demand a stable reliable voltage delivered from the AC power supply. Otherwise, the working life of medical equipment is shortened and their performance compromised. Since medical machines can be critical to patient safety, they must work under optimal power conditions requiring the use of an AVR to ensure a stable voltage.


3D printing:

No other AVR application is likely to be more critical than in 3D printing of medical devices since these devices must meet very high medical standards and exhibit long-term performance.


3D metal printers require energy sources to be delivered in high precision and extremely accurate control to ensure product quality and safety. Most powders used in 3D printing medical devices are volatile and may cause flash fires and explosion due to sparks in open air or intense flame. An automatic voltage regulator ensures that such accidental sparks are prevented. The AVR promotes a longer life expectancy of the 3D printer and protects it from power problems that will degrade its performance.



AVRs are necessary to insure high performance of highly automated machines or computer numerical control (CNC) machines. CNC machines are machine tools which are automated by means of computers executing pre-programmed sequences of machine control commands. This is in contrast to machines that are manually controlled by hand wheels or levers, or mechanically automated by the use of cams alone.


CNC machines typically fall into one of the two general categories: conventional machining technologies and novel machining technology:


The conventional technology machines include drill_bitdrills, lathe_bitlathes and milling_bitmilling machines. Novel technologies include electrical and/or chemical machining. There are a number of novel technologies that use specialized techniques to cut material. Examples include electron beam machining, electro-chemical machining, electrical discharge machining, photochemical machining, and ultrasonic machining. Most of these technologies are highly specialized and are used in special cases for mass-production involving a particular type of material.  Other cutting mediums use different mediums to cut material. Examples include laser cutting machines, oxy-fuel cutting machines, plasma cutting machines, and water-jet cutting technology.


An example of an application of CNS machines is in the grinding and polishing of optical lenses. With CNC machines, faster and less labor intensive manufacturing methods are now available options to conventional methods. From prototyping to high volume production, automated grinding and polishing technologies are now used for lens fabrication. These new technologies are more efficient and provide more reliable production.


Just like a 3D printer, CNS machines must perform without the power interruption brought on by fluctuations or the entire project will be a failure. The voltage regulator for CNC machines must have the functions of high-frequency interference resistance, anti-surge, and anti-electromagnet. There are many other technical specifications required as well.


Industrial Electrical Application


The electrical power characteristics required in industrial environments are significantly different from those found in offices or in data centers. Plastic manufacturers, food processors and machine shops require high power factor, low inrush currents, low harmonics, and minimum load swings among others.


This is why the automatic voltage regulator used in these environments must be able to prevent and correct the following:

  • Large loads & load swings
  • High load inrush currents
  • High load harmonics
  • Low load power factor

Several types of AVRs meeting these requirements are: ferroresonant constant variable transformers (older technology), tap switching transformer, limited range variable transformers, variable transformer buck-boost v.


Staco Energy’s AVR technology is based on a series regulation transformer controlled by variable transformers (VTs). It uses buckboost technology and offers tight output regulation (+/- 1%), robust design and easy customization accommodating against all but the most extreme voltage swings. Were additional non-voltage issues to occur, Staco Energy offers a series of options that address such issues as high voltage transients, high harmonic content and site load imbalance. This integrated and targeted approach provides sites specific power correction in a one-box solution.


Applications for Staco Voltage Regulation


Aside from those listed above include:


Broadcast: regulation for broadcast transmitter sites and studios.


Commercial: high-rise building whole floor regulation or power conditioning, input voltage regulation for elevator control, large a/c chillers lighting, and other sensitive non-critical systems.


Marine: dockside or shipboard voltage regulation and power conditioning.


Mobile: commercial broadcast and military mobile communication trucks, trailers, and shelters.



Please visit our web site or contact us at Peninsula Technical Sales to discuss your particular requirements or any further questions you might have. You can reach us at or by calling 650-965-3636.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

5G Wireless Technology

Let’s Talk 5G: More about Frequencies and Filters

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5G wireless technology is not scheduled to be available until 2020 but speculations about its frequency and filters are running rampant. Some of the most popular include:


Use of 5G RAN

The radio access network (RAN) for this next generation wireless technology is expected to be a combination of frequencies, nodes, and technologies which promise a boost in speed and reduction in latency. The downside is that it presents larger challenges for deployment.


Most consider that a frequency higher than what 4G offers will probably far outweigh its deployment difficulty.


Use of High-Frequency Spectrum

Many experts believe that 5G wireless technology will have a frequency spectrum of greater than 6 GHz particularly since almost all available spectrum below 6 GHz have already been allocated forcing carriers to move to a higher frequency spectrum in order to secure bandwidth.


The 4G networks’ spectrum is defined between 700 MHz to 3 GHz, by definition then 5G has to be higher. Companies are actively involved in doing research at different frequencies, such as 15 GHz, 28 GHz, and 70 GHz.


In the Final Report to The Office of Communications, (Ofcom, a UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom) the Quotient Associates presented the 5G Candidate Band Study that looked into the frequency range considerations for 5G wireless technology. The study considered 6-30 GHz, 30-100 GHz, and above 100GHz as frequency ranges for the study.


The numbers were chosen as they represent a segregation of spectrum that is useful for the research.


6-30 GHz

This frequency is chosen because it is closest to existing cellular frequencies used in today’s technology and architecture. It means little additional development for existing cellular technologies will be required to employ the next generation wireless technology.


30-100 GHz

Through the use of silicon technology, this whole range of frequencies will be accessible in the next 5 years. The 30-100 GHz range contains a 60 GHz oxygen absorption peak. Wi-Fi CERTIFIED (WiGig) expands the Wi-Fi experience for virtual reality, multimedia streaming, gaming, wireless docking, and enterprise applications requiring high speed, data-intensive connections. WiGig® allows Wi-Fi devices to access the uncongested 60 GHz frequency band with wide channels to transmit data efficiently at multi-gigabit per second speeds. WiGig systems were developed using low-cost silicon system-on-a-chip (SoC) integration.


Above 100GHz

In some countries, this band contains a number of oxygen and water absorption peaks. Combined with a narrow ISM band, the first oxygen peak is reached at 120 GHz. Although there are challenges in the device and packaging technologies used in this range, it remains of interest for future development because of how it enables huge bandwidths to be achieved.


Propagation for all these ranges, however, will be line-of-sight. This means bandwidths that are available above 6 GHz will have to be short range and point to point.


Filter Requirements of 5G Technology

Unlike the power amplifier, 5G RF filtering will require a single filter for each individual frequency band. This also means varied requirements for filtering.


Multiplexing will Become Complex

Multiplexing is the transmission of multiple analog or digital signals combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to share a scarce resource. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be carried using one wire. The need to multiplex will expand as carrier aggregation increases resulting in more complex designs.


Integration Will Increase

The entire RF chain will need to be optimized in order for the uplink’s Power Amplification (PA) efficiency and for the downlink’s receiver sensitivity to be maximized.


Number of Filters will Increase

Spectrum and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output proliferation will grow which, in turn, will require more filters. This calls for the cost and sizes of the filters to be decreased.


With increasing filter requirements, specifications will become more demanding as well.


Akon Inc. in San Jose, California is well positioned to supply filters, switch filter assemblies and frequency converters for the now underway 5-G network topology, while Synergy Microwave in Patterson, New Jersey supplies frequency sources and frequency synthesizers for the 5-G network as well.



For further information on 5G wireless technology and its frequency and filters please contact Peninsula Technical Sales by either visiting or calling us at (650) 935-3636.


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.

5G Network Antenna

Why 5G: Setting the New Standard for Frequencies of Operation for Telecommunication

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Amazing as it may seem after 2020 it will be necessary to support 1,000 times higher mobile data volume per area along with supporting new wireless broadband communication services coming from a plethora of different market segments. These requirements show the need for a new mobile generation, which is the impetus for developing the platform for Fifth Generation (5G) technologies.


Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society (METIS) is the research project partly funded by the European Commission under the Framework Programme 7 (FP7).  METIS’ goal is to develop a foundation for wireless communication systems after 2020 providing the technical enablers essential to overcome the very challenging requirements foreseen by both the scope of the project and its time frame.


The 5G system as seen by METIS must:
  • Surpass significantly today’s system in its efficiency of energy, cost, and resource utilization.
  • Support a significant diversity of requirements (e.g., payload size, availability, mobility, and Quality-of-Service (QoS)), etc
  • Augment scalability in terms of number of connected devices, densely deployed access points, spectrum usage, energy, and cost.


METIS has established the following technical goals derived from the above objectives:
  • 1,000 times higher mobile data volume per area,
  • 10 to 100 times higher typical user data rate,
  • 10 to 100 times higher number of connected devices,
  • 10 times longer battery life for low-power devices,
  • 5 times reduced end-to-end (E2E) latency, reaching a target of 5 ms for road safety applications.


According to the Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA) to qualify for a 5G connection one should meet most of these eight criteria:
  1. One to 10Gbps connections to end points in the field
  2. One millisecond end-to-end round trip delay
  3. 1000x bandwidth per unit area
  4. 10 to 100x number of connected devices
  5. (Perception of) 99.999 percent availability
  6. (Perception of) 100 percent coverage
  7. 90 percent reduction in network energy usage
  8. Up to ten-year battery life for low power, machine-type devices


The buzz word 5G often relays a misconception that 5G simply means super-fast data speeds. That’s because the early testing so far has emphasized how much faster 5G will be than today’s existing technology.


AT&T for example has announced that they believe 5G speeds will be measured in gigabits per second instead of megabits per second. This means an exponential boost of up to 100 times faster than the current speeds of 4G LTE. So what takes minutes to download now will only take a few seconds once the next generation of wireless technology is rolled out.


To comprehend how much faster a  gigabit connection is than any data speeds experienced presently we turn to Google’s claims that even at a rate of one gigabit per second, one can download a full HD movie in less than two minutes.


Aside from speed what are the other very significant advantages and potential for 5G?


Massive machine communications (MMC) will provide up- and down-scalable connectivity solutions for tens of billions of network-enabled devices. One of the biggest improvements one will see in 5G is the flexibility to support many different types of devices some already developed, others to be developed. In addition to routine connecting to phones and tablets, 5G will need to support an expanding market of wearable devices like fitness trackers and smart watches, smart-home gadgets and all sorts of sensors. It is estimated by some that in the future “every person will have 10 to 100 machines they need to work for them.”  As a sub set of MMC is the concept of the Internet of Things (IoT)

  1. The IOT represents the world of  devices, vehicles, home appliances, that is, any items embedded with electronic sensors which enable these objects to connect and exchange information.
  2. The IOT allows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure.   This includes medical sensing devices like heart monitoring implants or  “smart” assignations as smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities or transponders on to track animals or cameras streaming live feeds of wild animals in coastal waters.
  3. Self Driving Automobiles otherwise known as Vehicle to Vehicle, Device and Infrastructure (V2X) and driver assistance services demand communication between the vehicles and their environment  in order to improve road safety and traffic efficiency in the future. Such V2X services require reliable communication links that enable the transmission of data packets with guaranteed maximum latencies even at high vehicle speeds. Currently, self-driving cars rely on cellular towers to determine their location and where other cars are to avoid accidents. But because of latency problems, “driving” self-driving cars is a painfully slow process. The risk of accidents is also high because a self-driving vehicle is already traveling 4 feet at about 60 miles per hour before a message is received. The car could have collided with other vehicles by then.


Ultra-reliable Communications

Ultra-reliable communications (URC) will enable high degrees of availability. End-to-end performance refers to how reliably and consistently the cellular radio in a smartphone can maintain connections with the servers from which it retrieves information. URC will provide scalable and cost-efficient solutions for networks supporting services with extreme requirements on availability and reliability in employing device-to-device (D2D) solutions for public safety and proximity-based services applications.


5G is still in development, but many companies have started creating 5G products and field testing them such as Nokia, Qualcomm, Samsung, Ericsson and BT, with growing numbers of companies forming 5G partnerships and pledging money to continue to research into 5G and its applications. Contact Pentech today for more information!


Peninsula Technical Sales represents electronic equipment manufacturers and is proud to offer our services online and to the following cities and their surrounding areas: San Francisco, Santa Clara, San Jose, Fremont, Sacramento, Milpitas, and Santa Rosa.